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Tonic and phasic dopamine release is implicated in learning, motivation, and motor functions. However, the relationship between spike patterns in dopaminergic neurons, the extracellular concentration of dopamine, and activation of dopamine receptors remains unresolved. In the present study, we develop a computational model of dopamine signaling that give(More)
Using optical tweezers and single particle tracking, we have revealed the motion of a single protein, the lambda-receptor, in the outer membrane of living Escherichia coli bacteria. We genetically modified the lambda-receptor placing a biotin on an extracellular site of the receptor in vivo. The efficiency of this in vivo biotinylation is very low, thus(More)
Progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons is the neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms of the disease can often be treated by DA D2 agonists and thus seem related to disinhibition of the indirect striatal pathway. However, there is no evidence that symptoms arise by low extracellular DA concentration or are(More)
Dopamine (DA) D2-like autoreceptors are an important component of the DA system, but their influence on postsynaptic DA signaling is not well understood. They are, directly or indirectly, involved in drug abuse and in treatment of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactive disorder: DA autoreceptors influence the behavioral effect of cocaine and(More)
UNLABELLED Dynamic signaling of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons has been implicated in reward learning, drug abuse, and motivation. However, this system is complex because firing patterns of these neurons are heterogeneous; subpopulations receive distinct synaptic inputs, and project to anatomically and functionally distinct downstream targets, including(More)
BACKGROUND Mass-weighted aerodynamic particle-size distribution (APSD) is a key attribute for pharmaceutical products developed to deliver drugs to or through the lungs. In development and quality control, APSD is primarily determined using multistage cascade impactors. For impactor techniques, particle reentrainment is critical because it may lead to an(More)
We investigate the axial position detection of a trapped microsphere in an optical trap by using a quadrant photodiode. By replacing the photodiode with a CCD camera, we obtain detailed information on the light scattered by the microsphere. The correlation of the interference pattern with the axial position displays complex behavior with regions of positive(More)
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target(More)
We present an experimental method based on video microscopy to perform nanometer scale position detection of a micrometer bead in the direction along the propagation of the detection light. Using the same bead for calibration and detection significantly improves the in depth resolution in comparison to video microscopy methods from literature. This method(More)
Functionalized polymer nanoparticles are used as binders for inorganic materials in everyday technologies such as paper and coatings. However, the functionalization can give rise to two opposing effects: It can promote adhesion via specific interactions to the substrate, but a high degree of functionalization can also hamper spreading on substrates. Here,(More)