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Muller's ratchet is a paradigmatic model for the accumulation of deleterious mutations in a population of finite size. A click of the ratchet occurs when all individuals with the least number of deleterious mutations are lost irreversibly due to a stochastic fluctuation. In spite of the simplicity of the model, a quantitative understanding of the process… (More)

Waves propagating through a weakly scattering random medium show a pronounced branching of the flow accompanied by the formation of freak waves, i.e., extremely intense waves. Theory predicts that this strong fluctuation regime is accompanied by its own fundamental length scale of transport in random media, parametrically different from the mean free path… (More)

Even very weak correlated disorder potentials can cause extreme fluctuations in Hamiltonian flows. In two dimensions this leads to a pronounced branching of the flow. Although present in a great variety of physical systems, a quantitative theory of the branching statistics is lacking. Here, we derive an analytical expression for the number of branches valid… (More)

We demonstrate that branching of the electron flow in semiconductor nanostructures can strongly affect macroscopic transport quantities and can significantly change their dependence on external parameters compared to the ideal ballistic case, even when the system size is much smaller than the mean free path. In a corner-shaped ballistic device based on a… (More)

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