Jake Badger

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The electron density distribution of the solvent in the cubic insulin crystal structure, which occupies 65% of the volume, has been mapped from 1.7-A resolution diffraction data by an iterative difference Fourier method, using the previously determined protein structure as the refinement restraint. Starting with phases from the protein and a flat solvent(More)
Cubic insulin crystals contain approximately 30-A-diameter channels filled with aqueous solvent, providing a useful system in which to analyze hydration structure at a variety of distances from protein surfaces. Beginning with an atomic model for the protein and ordered water molecules, the density distribution in the solvent volume of the phasing model was(More)
Two localized monovalent cation binding sites have been identified in cubic insulin from 2.8 A-resolution difference electron density maps comparing crystals in which the Na+ ions have been replaced by Tl+. One cation is buried in a closed cavity between insulin dimers and is stabilized by interaction with protein carbonyl dipoles in two juxtaposed(More)
To determine the effect of variations in the charge distribution on the conformation of a protein molecule, we have solved the structures of bovine cubic insulin over a pH range from 7 to 11 in 0.1 M and 1 M sodium salt solutions. The x-ray data were collected beyond 2-A resolution and the R factors for the refined models ranged from 0.16 to 0.20. Whereas(More)
We present the results from an on-going project financed by the Danish PSO-fund where a number of subjects relevant for further automation and improvement of short term wind power forecasts methods are studied. The technological basis of the project is adaptive forecast methods as the methods forming the basis of WPPT (Wind Power Prediction Tool) – a well(More)
To determine the distribution of monovalent cations around a protein we have measured anomalous scattering diffraction data from Tl-containing cubic insulin crystals at pH 8 and pH 10.5. The differences between Bijvoet reflection pairs within each set of data were used to calculate anomalous scattering difference maps. Both maps show the same six Tl+ sites,(More)
Cubic insulin crystals contain a binding site for monovalent cations in a cavity of the crystal dyad in which the bound cation is ligated by protein atomic dipoles and water molecules. These types of interaction are analogous to interactions that occur in small cation-selective carrier and channel molecules. X-ray diffraction data collected from cubic(More)
Comparisons of atomic models for chemically identical protein molecules solved in differing crystal environments provide information on flexibility in the protein structure. The structures of five T4 lysozyme proteins in differing crystal environments showed large relative displacements of the two domains with conserved backbone conformations that are(More)
Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development as compared to the Horns Rev 1 photographs from 12 February(More)