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Monocytes participate critically in atherosclerosis. There are 2 major subsets expressing different chemokine receptor patterns: CCR2(+)CX3CR1(+)Ly-6C(hi) and CCR2(-)CX3CR1(++)Ly-6C(lo) monocytes. Both C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and C-X(3)-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) are linked to progression of atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we(More)
Some monocytes normally take up residence in tissues as sessile macrophages, but others differentiate into migratory cells resembling dendritic cells that emigrate to lymph nodes. In an in vitro model of a vessel wall, lipid mediators lysophosphatidic acid and platelet-activating factor, whose signals are implicated in promoting atherosclerosis, blocked(More)
We investigated the fate of latex (LX) particles that were introduced into mice intranasally. Macrophages acquired the vast majority of particles and outnumbered LX particle-bearing airway dendritic cells (DCs) by at least two orders of magnitude. Yet alveolar macrophages were refractory to migration to the draining lymph node (DLN), and all transport to(More)
The recognition events that mediate adaptive cellular immunity and regulate antibody responses depend on intercellular contacts between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). T-cell signalling is initiated at these contacts when surface-expressed T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize peptide fragments (antigens) of pathogens bound to major(More)
Dendritic cell (DC) migration from the periphery to lymph nodes is regulated by the pattern of genes expressed by DCs themselves and by signals within the surrounding peripheral environment. Here, we report that DC mobilization can also be regulated by signals initiated within the downstream lymph nodes, particularly when lymph nodes enlarge as a(More)
Previous studies have shown that chronic administration of oestrogen to prepubertal rats reduces the total content of noradrenaline in the uterine horn, abolishes myometrial noradrenergic innervation and reduces noradrenaline-fluorescence intensity of intrauterine perivascular nerve fibres. The mechanisms underlying these changes are not known. In the(More)
The relationship between intermembrane spacing, adhesion efficiency, and lateral organization of adhesion receptors has not been established for any adhesion system. We have utilized the CD2 ligand CD48 with two (wild type CD48 (CD48-WT)), four (CD48-CD2), or five (CD48-CD22) Ig-like domains. CD48-WT was 10-fold more efficient in mediating adhesion than(More)
High LDL and/or low HDL are risk factors for atherosclerosis and are also a common clinical feature in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. Here, we show that changes in lipid profiles that reflect atherosclerotic disease led to activation of skin murine dendritic cells (DCs) locally, promoted dermal inflammation, and induced(More)
Studying the influence of chemokine receptors (CCRs) on monocyte fate may reveal information about which subpopulations of monocytes convert to dendritic cells (DCs) and the migration pathways that they use. First, we examined whether prominent CCRs on different monocyte subsets, CCR2 or CX3CR1, mediated migration events upstream of the accumulation of(More)
We previously demonstrated that L-selectin (CD62L)-dependent T cell homing to lymph nodes (LN) is required for tolerance induction to alloantigen. To explore the mechanisms of this observation, we analyzed the development and distribution of regulatory T cells (Treg), which play an important protective role against allograft rejection in transplantation(More)