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A subset of preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) and somatostatin peptide (SST)-expressing neurons are necessary for breathing in adult rats, in vivo. Their developmental origins and relationship to other preBötC glutamatergic neurons are unknown. Here we show, in mice, that the "core" of preBötC SST(+)/NK1R(+)/SST 2a receptor(+)(More)
Nicotine is a neuroteratogen and is the likely link between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Osmotic minipumps were implanted in 5-7 d CF1 pregnant mice to deliver nicotine bitartrate (60 mg Kg(-1) day(-1)) or saline (control) solutions for up to 28 d. Prenatal to early postnatal nicotine exposure did not(More)
Unfailing respiration depends on neural mechanisms already present in mammals before birth. Experiments were made to determine how inspiratory and expiratory neurons are grouped in the brainstem of fetal mice. A further aim was to assess whether rhythmicity arises from a single pacemaker or is generated by multiple sites in the brainstem. To measure(More)
1. Maternal tobacco smoking is the principal risk factor associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), a leading cause of death of infants under 1 year of age. Victims of SIDS show a higher incidence of respiratory control abnormalities, including central apnoeas, delayed arousal responses and diminished ventilatory chemoreflexes. 2. Nicotine is(More)
Nicotine may link cigarette smoking during pregnancy with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Pre-natal nicotine leads to diminished ventilatory responses to hypercarbia and reduced central chemoreception in mice at post-natal days 0-3. We studied how pre-natal nicotine exposure changes the cholinergic contribution to central respiratory chemoreception in(More)
1. The aim of the present experiments was to characterize the central chemical drive of fictive respiration in the isolated CNS of the newborn opossum, Monodelphis domestica. This opossum preparation, in contrast to those of neonatal rats and mice, produces respiratory rhythm of high frequency in vitro. 2. Fictive respiration was recorded from C3-C5 ventral(More)
Since its introduction two decades ago, the isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparation of neonatal rodents has been the preferred method used to reveal the mystery underlying the genesis of the respiratory rhythm. Little research using this in vitro approach has focused on the study of the central respiratory chemosensitivity. Some unexpected findings(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and a progressive neurodegeneration that appears to result from multiple pathogenic mechanisms (including protein misfolding/aggregation, involved in both amyloid β-dependent senile plaques and tau-dependent neurofibrillary tangles), metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction, excitoxicity, calcium(More)
Among multiple structural and functional brain changes, aging is accompanied by an increase of inflammatory signaling in the nervous system as well as a dysfunction of the immune system elsewhere. Although the long-held view that aging involves neurocognitive impairment is now dismissed, aging is a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as(More)
Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergoes phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant(More)