Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak

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CONTEXT Ketamine evokes psychosislike symptoms, and its primary action is to impair N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor neurotransmission, but it also induces secondary increases in glutamate release. OBJECTIVES To identify the sites of action of ketamine in inducing symptoms and to determine the role of increased glutamate release using the glutamate(More)
Brain imaging techniques allow the in vivo evaluation of the human brain, leading to a better understanding of its anatomical, functional and metabolic substrate. The aim of this current report is to present a systematic and critical review of neuroimaging findings in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A literature review was performed in the PubMed Medline,(More)
A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to(More)
IMPORTANCE The treatment of schizophrenia remains a challenge, and the currently available antipsychotic drugs are slow acting and produce a number of adverse effects. OBJECTIVE To examine the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous administration of sodium nitroprusside (0.5 μg/kg/min for 4 hours) on the positive, negative, anxiety, and(More)
Animal and human studies indicate that cannabidiol (CBD), a major constituent of cannabis, has anxiolytic properties. However, no study to date has investigated the effects of this compound on human pathological anxiety and its underlying brain mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate this in patients with generalized social anxiety(More)
The onset and early course of schizophrenia is associated with subtle loss of grey matter which may be responsible for the evolution and persistence of symptoms such as apathy, emotional blunting, and social withdrawal. Such 'negative' symptoms are unaffected by current antipsychotic therapies. There is evidence that the antibiotic minocycline has(More)
BACKGROUND Interactions between glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems may contribute to schizophrenia, dissociative states, and other psychiatric conditions. Cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid-1/2 (CB1/2) receptor weak partial agonist or antagonist, may play a role in the treatment of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE This study tested the hypothesis that CBD(More)
The hallucinogenic brew Ayahuasca, a rich source of serotonergic agonists and reuptake inhibitors, has been used for ages by Amazonian populations during religious ceremonies. Among all perceptual changes induced by Ayahuasca, the most remarkable are vivid "seeings." During such seeings, users report potent imagery. Using functional magnetic resonance(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have reported a variety of brain abnormalities in association with schizophrenia. These include a higher incidence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), which is consistent with a neurodevelopmental model for this disorder. In this meta-analytic review, we describe and discuss the main CSP MRI findings in schizophrenia(More)
Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety conditions with impairment in social life. Cannabidiol (CBD), one major non-psychotomimetic compound of the cannabis sativa plant, has shown anxiolytic effects both in humans and in animals. This preliminary study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test(More)