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BACKGROUND Courtship behavior in Drosophila has been causally linked to the activity of the heterogeneous set of ∼1500 neurons that express the sex-specific transcripts of the fruitless (fru) gene, but we currently lack an appreciation of the cellular diversity within this population, the extent to which these cells are sexually dimorphic, and how they(More)
BACKGROUND Sex-specific behavior may originate from differences in brain structure or function. In Drosophila, the action of the male-specific isoform of fruitless in about 2000 neurons appears to be necessary and sufficient for many aspects of male courtship behavior. Initial work found limited evidence for anatomical dimorphism in these fru+ neurons.(More)
The courtship song of the Drosophila male serves as a genetically tractable model for the investigation of the neural mechanisms of decision-making, action selection, and motor pattern generation. Singing has been causally linked to the activity of the set of neurons that express the sex-specific fru transcripts, but the specific neurons involved have not(More)
Learning through trial-and-error interactions allows animals to adapt innate behavioural ‘rules of thumb’ to the local environment, improving their prospects for survival and reproduction. Naive Drosophila melanogaster males, for example, court both virgin and mated females, but learn through experience to selectively suppress futile courtship towards(More)
Growth and survival of hematopoietic cells is regulated by growth factors and cytokines, such as interleukin 3 (IL-3). When cytokine is removed, cells dependent on IL-3 kill themselves by a mechanism that is inhibited by overexpression of Bcl-2 and is likely to be mediated by proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Bad and Bim are 2 such BH3-only Bcl-2 family(More)
When making a decision it is often necessary to consider the available alternatives in order to choose the most appropriate option. This deliberative process, where the pros and cons of each option are considered, relies on memories of past actions and outcomes. The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are required for memory encoding, memory retrieval and(More)
Neurobiology investigates how anatomical and physiological relationships in the nervous system mediate behavior. Molecular genetic techniques, applied to species such as the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, have proven to be an important tool in this research. Large databases of transgenic specimens are being built and need to be analyzed to(More)
Although the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2 has been extensively studied, its mode of action is still incompletely understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, 131 of 1090 somatic cells undergo programmed cell death during development. Transgenic expression of human Bcl-2 reduced cell death during nematode development, and partially complemented(More)
Male flies tend to put on quite a show when it comes to sex. They have to. Females can be rather choosy, expecting their suitors to demonstrate their quality through a demanding courtship ritual. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, as in many other insects, the male’s most potent charm is his courtship song, which he produces by vibrating one wing. If(More)