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This study was designed to understand which factors influence consumer hesitation or delay in online product purchases. The study examined four groups of variables (i.e., consumer characteristics, contextual factors perceived uncertainty factors, and medium/channel innovation factors) that predict three types of online shopping hesitation (i.e., overall(More)
This paper analyzes the scalability of message flooding protocols in networks with various node densities, which can be expected in vehicular scenarios. Vehicle safety applications require reliable delivery of warning messages to nearby and approaching vehicles. Due to potentially large distances and shadowing, the delivery protocol must forward messages(More)
Due to its bandwidth efficiency, multicast makes a group-centric communication more viable in wireless ad hoc networks with limited radio resources. PIM-SM, a de facto standard multicast protocol known for its high scalability, is a good fit for a large-scale ad hoc network. However, it does not provide a robust multicast communication under RP outage and(More)
This paper presents an integrated approach to IP fast reroute (IPFRR) of both unicast and multicast paths in wireless mobile networks. A distinct feature of the proposed approach is that, instead of modifying existing routing protocols, it employs a soft handoff technique, i.e., temporarily installs pre-computed Loop Free Alternative Paths (LFAPs) until the(More)
To avoid congestion before it happens, the traffic from the sources should be "reduced" (traffic control) or the available resources should be "increased" (resource control) in advance. While the traffic control in the context of congestion avoidance has been extensively studied mostly through the active queue management (AQM), resource control has received(More)
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