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Mammalian cells respond to endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by activation of protein kinase cascades that lead to new gene expression. A protein kinase, p38, that was tyrosine phosphorylated in… Expand
Regulation of integrin affinity (activation) is essential for metazoan development and for many pathological processes. Binding of the talin phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain to integrin beta… Expand
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), a disease associated with defective endothelial junctions, result from autosomal dominant CCM1 mutations that cause loss of KRIT-1 protein function, though how… Expand
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases require dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine residues in order to gain enzymatic activity. This activation is carried out by a family of enzymes… Expand
BACKGROUND Integrin receptors, composed of transmembrane alpha and beta subunits, are essential for the development and functioning of multicellular animals. Agonist stimulation leads cells to… Expand
Dynamic regulation of adhesion complexes is required for cell migration and has therefore emerged as a key issue in the study of cell motility. Recent progress has been made in defining some of the… Expand
Formation of a stable lamellipodium at the front of migrating cells requires localization of Rac activation to the leading edge. Restriction of α4 integrin phosphorylation to the leading edge limits… Expand
Rap1 stabilizes cell–cell junctions by directly binding to KRIT1, displacing it from microtubules and enabling localization at the junctions.
The closely related small GTP-binding proteins H-Ras and R-Ras have opposing effects on the regulation of integrin cell adhesion receptors. To gain insight into the properties of R-Ras with respect… Expand
The alpha4 integrins (alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7) play multiple roles in the immune system. Alpha4 integrins impact hematopoiesis, leukocyte trafficking in immune surveillance and inflammation, and… Expand