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Transformations of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and bisphenol A (BPA) in conventional chlorination and electrochemically (EC) treated solutions were examined using spectrophotometry and chromatographic analyses. EC treatment was carried out using an undivided EC cell with a PbO2 anode and a stainless steel cathode. EC-treatment and conventional chlorination(More)
The EQuilibrium Criterion (EQC) model developed and published in 1996 has been widely used for screening level evaluations of the multimedia, fugacity-based environmental fate of organic chemicals for educational, industrial, and regulatory purposes. Advances in the science of chemical partitioning and reactivity and the need for more rigorous regulatory(More)
The EQuilibrium Criterion (EQC) model developed and published in 1996 was recently revised to include improved treatment of input partitioning and reactivity data, temperature dependence and an easier sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. This New EQC model was used to evaluate the multimedia, fugacity-based fate of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS No.(More)
Treatment of solutions of nonylphenol (NP), Triton X-100 (TrX) and phenol in a flow-through undivided EC reactor equipped with a Co(2+)-promoted PbO(2) anode and a stainless steel cathode was accompanied by consistent changes of absorbance, fluorescence and mass spectra of the effluents, and formation of aldehydes ranging from formaldehyde to decyl(More)
The environmental sources, fate, transport, and routes of exposure of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS no. 541-02-6) are reviewed in the present study, with the objective of contributing to effective risk evaluation and assessment of this and related substances. The present review, which is part of a series of studies discussing aspects of an effective(More)
This study examined the formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids in ozonated surface water and municipal wastewater secondary effluent and addressed correlations between the generation of these compounds and concurrent changes of the fluorescence of natural/effluent organic matter (NOM/EfOM) substrates. Ozonation was effective in removing fluorophores in(More)
Measurements of electrochemical (EC) arsenite oxidation demonstrated thatthe arsenite oxidation current increased in the presence of carbonate while the potential of the onset of EC arsenite oxidation exhibited a strong shift toward less positive values. Examination of pH and total carbonate concentration effects on the EC arsenite oxidation parameters(More)
Arsenate and nitrate can be removed quantitatively from drinking water by anion exchange. However, if the raw water contains substantial concentrations of sulfate or nitrate, the resin becomes exhausted quickly, and the requirements for regenerant (brine) can make the process unattractive. Previously, we described a modified ion exchange operating procedure(More)
At many wastewater treatment plants, chemical addition is required to meet the requirements for discharge of phosphorus. Membrane filtration is an attractive option for removing the chemically precipitated phosphorus, but that process can be impeded by fouling of the membrane by effluent organic matter (EfOM). In the current study, membrane fouling and(More)
The QWASI fugacity mass balance model has been widely used since 1983 for both scientific and regulatory purposes to estimate the concentrations of organic chemicals in water and sediment, given an assumed rate of chemical emission, advective inflow in water or deposition from the atmosphere. It has become apparent that an updated version is required,(More)