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All metazoan guts are in permanent contact with the microbial realm. However, understanding of the exact mechanisms by which the strength of gut immune responses is regulated to achieve gut-microbe mutualism is far from complete. Here we identify a signaling network composed of complex positive and negative mechanisms that controlled the expression and(More)
LPS, the primary constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is recognized by TLR4. Binding of TLR4 to LPS triggers various cell signaling pathways including NF-kappaB activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this study, we present the data that LPS-induced ROS generation and NF-kappaB activation are mediated by a direct(More)
The mechanisms that establish and maintain the multipotency of stem cells are poorly understood. In neural crest stem cells (NCSCs), the HMG-box factor SOX10 preserves not only glial, but surprisingly, also neuronal potential from extinction by lineage commitment signals. The latter function is reflected in the requirement of SOX10 in vivo for induction of(More)
The neural bHLH genes Mash1 and Ngn2 are expressed in complementary populations of neural progenitors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Here, we have systematically compared the activities of the two genes during neural development by generating replacement mutations in mice in which the coding sequences of Mash1 and Ngn2 were swapped. Using(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL), a common type of mature T cell lymphoma of poor prognosis, are largely unknown. Here we report a frequent somatic mutation in RHOA (encoding p.Gly17Val) using exome and transcriptome sequencing of samples from individuals with AITL. Further examination of the RHOA mutation(More)
Neural precursor cells (NPCs) are regarded as a promising source of donor cells in transplantation-based therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. However, poor survival and limited neuronal differentiation of the transplanted NPCs remain critical limitations for developing therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated the effects of the proneural(More)
Effective dopamine (DA) neuron differentiation from neural precursor cells (NPCs) is prerequisite for precursor/stem cell-based therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nurr1, an orphan nuclear receptor, has been reported as a transcription factor that can drive DA neuron differentiation from non-dopaminergic NPCs in vitro. However, Nurr1 alone neither induces(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene Hes6 is known to promote neural differentiation in vitro. Here, we report the expression and functional studies of Hes6 in the inner ear. The expression of Hes6 appears to be parallel to that of Math1 (also known as Atoh1), a bHLH gene necessary and sufficient for hair cell differentiation. Hes6 is expressed initially(More)
Sox10, a member of the Sry-related HMG-Box gene family, is a critical transcription factor for several important cell lineages, most notably the neural crest stem cells and the derivative peripheral glial cells and melanocytes. Thus far, only a handful of direct target genes are known for this transcription factor limiting our understanding of the(More)
Chromosome translocations and gene fusions are frequent events in the human genome and have been found to cause diverse types of tumor. ChimerDB is a knowledgebase of fusion genes identified from bioinformatics analysis of transcript sequences in the GenBank and various other public resources such as the Sanger cancer genome project (CGP), OMIM, PubMed and(More)