DNA methylation has critical roles in the nervous system and has been traditionally considered to be restricted to CpG dinucleotides in metazoan genomes. Here we show that the single base-resolution DNA methylome from adult mouse dentate neurons consists of both CpG (~75%) and CpH (~25%) methylation (H = A/C/T). Neuronal CpH methylation is conserved in… (More)
Dysregulated neurodevelopment with altered structural and functional connectivity is believed to underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders, and 'a disease of synapses' is the major hypothesis for the biological basis of schizophrenia. Although this hypothesis has gained indirect support from human post-mortem brain analyses and genetic studies, little is… (More)
DNA methylation, especially CpG methylation at promoter regions, has been generally considered as a potent epigenetic modification that prohibits transcription factor (TF) recruitment, resulting in transcription suppression. Here, we used a protein microarray-based approach to systematically survey the entire human TF family and found numerous purified TFs… (More)
Contrary to the long-held belief that DNA methylation of terminally differentiated cells is permanent and essentially immutable, post-mitotic neurons exhibit extensive DNA demethylation. The cellular function of active DNA demethylation in neurons, however, remains largely unknown. Tet family proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine to initiate active DNA… (More)
Two new studies reveal novel DNA-binding properties of MeCP2, mutations of which cause Rett syndrome. Baker et al. report critical roles for the AT-hook domain of MeCP2 in chromatin organization and clinical features of Rett syndrome. Mellén et al. find the methyl-CpG-binding domain of MeCP2 interacts with hydroxymethyl-CpG.
The mammalian brain is an evolutionary marvel in which engraving and re-engraving of cellular states enable complex information processing and lifelong maintenance. Understanding the mechanisms by which neurons alter and maintain their molecular signatures during information processing is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)… (More)
DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark in mammalian development, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, chromosomal stability and suppressing parasitic DNA elements. DNA methylation in neurons has also been suggested to play important roles for mammalian neuronal functions, and learning and memory. In this review, we first summarize recent discoveries… (More)
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Laurent et al. (2015) demonstrated that a neuron-enriched isoform of LSD1 (LSD1+8a) within a SVIL-containing complex exhibits H3K9me1/2-specific demethylation activity. Such activity was crucial for gene activation during mammalian neurogenesis.
A group of papers investigates functional regulatory elements in genomes from human tissue samples and cell lines. What can neuroscientists learn from the gigantic data set and how will it affect the direction of neuroepigenetics?
Mounting evidence has recently underscored the importance of DNA methylation in normal brain functions. DNA methylation machineries are responsible for dynamic regulation of methylation patterns in discrete brain regions. In addition to methylation of cytosines in genomic DNA (5-methylcytosine; 5mC), other forms of modified cytosines, such as… (More)