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H2B ubiquitylation has been implicated in active transcription but is not well understood in mammalian cells. Beyond earlier identification of hBRE1 as the E3 ligase for H2B ubiquitylation in human cells, we now show (1) that hRAD6 serves as the cognate E2-conjugating enzyme; (2) that hRAD6, through direct interaction with hPAF-bound hBRE1, is recruited to(More)
Transcriptional coactivators that modify histones represent an increasingly important group of regulatory factors, although their ability to modify other factors as well precludes common assumptions that they necessarily act by histone modification. In an extension of previous studies showing a role for acetyltransferase p300/CBP in p53 function, we have(More)
Diverse histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation play important roles in transcriptional regulation throughout eukaryotes, and recent studies in yeast also have implicated H2B ubiquitylation in the transcription of specific genes. Here, we report the identification of a functional human homolog, hBRE1, of the yeast BRE1 E3(More)
A number of acute leukemias arise from fusion of the mixed lineage leukemia 1 protein (MLL) N terminus to a variety of fusion partners that have been reported to reside in one or more poorly defined complexes linked to transcription elongation through interactions with the histone H3-K79 methyltransferase DOT1 and positive transcription elongation factor b(More)
Genetic and cell-based studies have implicated the PAF1 complex (PAF1C) in transcription-associated events, but there has been no evidence showing a direct role in facilitating transcription of a natural chromatin template. Here, we demonstrate an intrinsic ability of human PAF1C (hPAF1C) to facilitate activator (p53)- and histone acetyltransferase(More)
Numerous post-translational modifications of histones have been described in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Growing evidence for dynamic regulation of these modifications, position- and modification-specific protein interactions, and biochemical crosstalk between modifications has strengthened the 'histone code' hypothesis, in which histone(More)
Chromatin reorganization is governed by multiple post-translational modifications of chromosomal proteins and DNA. These histone modifications are reversible, dynamic events that can regulate DNA-driven cellular processes. However, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate histone modification patterns remain largely unknown. In metazoans, reversible protein(More)
MLL1 fusion proteins activate HoxA9 gene expression and cause aggressive leukemias that respond poorly to treatment, but how they recognize and stably bind to HoxA9 is not clearly understood. In a systematic analysis of MLL1 domain recruitment activity, we identified an essential MLL1 recruitment domain that includes the CXXC domain and PHD fingers and is(More)
Recent yeast genetic studies have implicated the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and ubiquitin ligase functions of yRad6 and yBre1, respectively, in H2B ubiquitylation. However, there have been no corresponding biochemical analyses demonstrating intrinsic enzyme activities of yRad6 and yBre1 or related mechanistic details. Here, we describe a robust in vitro(More)
Viral infection is commonly associated with virus-driven hijacking of host proteins. Here we describe a novel mechanism by which influenza virus affects host cells through the interaction of influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) with the infected cell epigenome. We show that the NS1 protein of influenza A H3N2 subtype possesses a histone-like sequence(More)