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The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the(More)
Cerebrocortical neurons that store and release zinc synaptically are widely recognized as critical in maintenance of cortical excitability and in certain forms of brain injury and disease. Through the last 20 years, this synaptic release has been observed directly or indirectly and reported in more than a score of publications from over a dozen laboratories(More)
Endogenous metals may contribute to the accumulation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. To specifically examine the role of synaptic zinc in the plaque accumulation, Tg2576 (also called APP2576) transgenic mice (hAPP(+)) expressing cerebral amyloid plaque pathology were crossed with mice lacking zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3(-/-)), which is required for(More)
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to dementia and cerebral hemorrhage. Parenchymal beta-amyloid deposition is dependent on the activity of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), a neocortical synaptic vesicle membrane protein that causes enrichment of exchangeable Zn2+ in the vesicle, which is externalized on(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether changes in nutritional status in the first week after acute ischemic stroke and undernutrition predicts poor clinical outcomes. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING Tertiary university hospital. PATIENTS We included 131 acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent nutritional assessments within 24 hours and at(More)
Zinc dyshomeostasis has been recognized as an important mechanism for cell death in acute brain injury. An increase in the level of free or histochemically reactive zinc in astrocytes and neurons is considered one of the major causes of death of these cells in ischemia and trauma. Although zinc dyshomeostasis can lead to cell death via diverse routes, the(More)
Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a(More)
In the present study, we examined the role and the mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) activation in zinc-induced cell death in cortical culture. After brief exposure to 400 microM zinc, cortical cells exhibited DNA fragmentation, increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and decreased levels of nicotinamide(More)
In certain brain regions, extracellular zinc concentrations can rise precipitously as intense neuronal activity releases large amounts of zinc from the nerve terminals. Although zinc release has been suggested to play a pathological role, its precise physiological effect is poorly understood. Here, we report that exposure to micromolar quantities of zinc(More)
Treatment of MCF-7 cells with tamoxifen induced vacuole formation and cell death. Levels of the autophagy marker, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II also increased, and GFP-LC3 accumulated in and around vacuoles in MCF-7 cells exposed to tamoxifen, indicating that autophagy is involved in tamoxifen-induced changes. Live-cell confocal(More)