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Zinc is present in presynaptic nerve terminals throughout the mammalian central nervous system and likely serves as an endogenous signaling substance. However, excessive exposure to extracellular zinc can damage central neurons. After transient forebrain ischemia in rats, chelatable zinc accumulated specifically in degenerating neurons in the hippocampal(More)
Zinc is an essential catalytic or structural element of many proteins, and a signaling messenger that is released by neural activity at many central excitatory synapses. Growing evidence suggests that zinc may also be a key mediator and modulator of the neuronal death associated with transient global ischemia and sustained seizures, as well as perhaps other(More)
Zn(2+) is the second most prevalent trace element in the body and is present in particularly large concentrations in the mammalian brain. Although Zn(2+) is a cofactor for many enzymes in all tissues, a unique feature of brain Zn(2+) is its vesicular localization in presynaptic terminals, where its release is dependent on neural activity. Although the(More)
The effects of neurotrophins on several forms of neuronal degeneration in murine cortical cell cultures were examined. Consistent with other studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 all attenuated the apoptotic death induced by serum deprivation or exposure to the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine. Unexpectedly,(More)
Staurosporine, a nonselective protein kinase inhibitor, has been shown to induce apoptosis in several different nonneuronal cell types. We tested the hypothesis that staurosporine would also induce apoptosis in central neurons. Exposure of murine cortical cell cultures to 30-100 nM staurosporine induced concentration-dependent selective neuronal(More)
We used the ratioable fluorescent dye mag-fura-5 to measure intracellular free Zn2+ ([Zn2+]i) in cultured neocortical neurons exposed to neurotoxic concentrations of Zn2+ in concert with depolarization or glutamate receptor activation and identified four routes of Zn2+ entry. Neurons exposed to extracellular Zn2+ plus high K+ responded with a peak cell body(More)
The antagonist pharmacology of glutamate neurotoxicity was quantitatively examined in murine cortical cell cultures. Addition of 1-3 mM DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), or its active isomer D-APV, acutely to the exposure solution selectively blocked the neuroexcitation and neuronal cell selectively blocked the neuroexcitation and neuronal cell loss(More)
This study examined the possibility that the excitotoxin-induced death of cultured cortical neurons might occur by apoptosis, specifically focusing on the slowly triggered death induced by low concentrations of excitotoxin. Cultured murine cortical neurons (days in vitro 10-12) were exposed continuously to N-methyl-D-aspartate (10-15 microM),(More)
Evidence has accumulated that Zn2+ plays a central role in neurodegenerative processes following brain injuries including ischaemia or epilepsy. In the present study, we examined patterns and possible mechanisms of Zn2+ neurotoxicity. Inclusion of 30-300 microM Zn2+ for 30 min caused neuronal necrosis apparent by cell body and mitochondrial swelling in(More)
Recent studies have implicated the ingestion of the structurally related plant excitotoxins, beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), and beta-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA), in the pathogenesis of two human motor system diseases, the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam (Guam ALS-PD), and lathyrism, respectively. We have(More)