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The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the(More)
Endogenous metals may contribute to the accumulation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. To specifically examine the role of synaptic zinc in the plaque accumulation, Tg2576 (also called APP2576) transgenic mice (hAPP(+)) expressing cerebral amyloid plaque pathology were crossed with mice lacking zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3(-/-)), which is required for(More)
p16INK4A is a cell cycle inhibitor that is commonly inactivated in human tumors and tumor cell lines. Despite its importance in human neoplasia, the normal pattern of p16 expression remains largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the immunohistochemical localization of p16 in all human organs and demonstrated that cellular p16 expression is highly(More)
Cerebrocortical neurons that store and release zinc synaptically are widely recognized as critical in maintenance of cortical excitability and in certain forms of brain injury and disease. Through the last 20 years, this synaptic release has been observed directly or indirectly and reported in more than a score of publications from over a dozen laboratories(More)
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to dementia and cerebral hemorrhage. Parenchymal beta-amyloid deposition is dependent on the activity of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), a neocortical synaptic vesicle membrane protein that causes enrichment of exchangeable Zn2+ in the vesicle, which is externalized on(More)
The membrane-impermeable chelator CaEDTA was introduced extracellularly among neurons in vivo and in vitro for the purpose of chelating extracellular Zn(2+). Unexpectedly, this treatment caused histochemically reactive Zn(2+) in intracellular compartments to drop rapidly. The same general result was seen with intravesicular Zn(2+), which fell after CaEDTA(More)
Zinc dyshomeostasis has been recognized as an important mechanism for cell death in acute brain injury. An increase in the level of free or histochemically reactive zinc in astrocytes and neurons is considered one of the major causes of death of these cells in ischemia and trauma. Although zinc dyshomeostasis can lead to cell death via diverse routes, the(More)
Metals such as zinc, copper and iron contribute to aggregation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein and deposition of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined whether the lipophilic metal chelator DP-109 inhibited these events in aged female hAbetaPP-transgenic Tg2576 mice. Daily gavage administration of DP-109 for 3 months markedly reduced the(More)
Progesterone (PG) exerts neuroprotective effects under conditions such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Previously, we reported that PG activates autophagy, a potential neuroprotective mechanism, in cortical astrocytes. In the present study, we explored the possibility that PG, by activating autophagy in spinal cord cells,(More)
The vast majority of glioblastomas have CDKN2A, CDK4, or RB gene alterations that perturb the p16-cdk4-pRb cell cycle regulatory cascade. To explore whether immunohistochemical methods provide an alternative means of assessing this pathway, we studied 25 glioblastomas using a combination of molecular genetic and immunohistochemical assays. Homozygous(More)