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The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the(More)
Cerebrocortical neurons that store and release zinc synaptically are widely recognized as critical in maintenance of cortical excitability and in certain forms of brain injury and disease. Through the last 20 years, this synaptic release has been observed directly or indirectly and reported in more than a score of publications from over a dozen laboratories(More)
Normal neuronal activity results in the release of zinc from the synaptic vesicles of glutamatergic terminals and subsequent entry into postsynaptic neurons. Although the exact physiological role of zinc translocation is currently unknown, it is very likely that intracellular zinc exerts long-term modulatory effects upon synaptic transmission since zinc(More)
In the present study, we examined the role and the mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) activation in zinc-induced cell death in cortical culture. After brief exposure to 400 microM zinc, cortical cells exhibited DNA fragmentation, increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and decreased levels of nicotinamide(More)
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to dementia and cerebral hemorrhage. Parenchymal beta-amyloid deposition is dependent on the activity of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), a neocortical synaptic vesicle membrane protein that causes enrichment of exchangeable Zn2+ in the vesicle, which is externalized on(More)
Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a(More)
The membrane-impermeable chelator CaEDTA was introduced extracellularly among neurons in vivo and in vitro for the purpose of chelating extracellular Zn(2+). Unexpectedly, this treatment caused histochemically reactive Zn(2+) in intracellular compartments to drop rapidly. The same general result was seen with intravesicular Zn(2+), which fell after CaEDTA(More)
Progesterone (PG) exerts neuroprotective effects under conditions such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Previously, we reported that PG activates autophagy, a potential neuroprotective mechanism, in cortical astrocytes. In the present study, we explored the possibility that PG, by activating autophagy in spinal cord cells,(More)
Zinc dyshomeostasis has been recognized as an important mechanism for cell death in acute brain injury. An increase in the level of free or histochemically reactive zinc in astrocytes and neurons is considered one of the major causes of death of these cells in ischemia and trauma. Although zinc dyshomeostasis can lead to cell death via diverse routes, the(More)
Previous studies suggest that female sex hormones modulate synaptic zinc levels, which may influence amyloid plaque formation and Alzheimer's disease progression. We examined the effects of ovariectomy and estrogen supplement on the levels of synaptic zinc and zinc transporter protein Znt3 in the brain. Ovariectomy was performed on 5-month-old mice, and 2(More)