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Interactions between Wnts, Fgfs and Tbx genes are involved in limb initiation and the same gene families have been implicated in mammary gland development. Here we explore how these genes act together in mammary gland initiation. We compared expression of Tbx3, the gene associated with the human condition ulnar-mammary syndrome, expression of the gene(More)
The development of nanocrystals has been intensively pursued, not only for their fundamental scientific interest, but also for many technological applications. The synthesis of monodisperse nanocrystals (size variation <5%) is of key importance, because the properties of these nanocrystals depend strongly on their dimensions. For example, the colour(More)
During secondary palate development, two shelves are elevated to a horizontal position above the tongue through a process involving many cellular mechanisms, including proliferation. In particular, the expression patterns of Tbx3 and Bmp4, which are colocalized at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) and have unique expression patterns in specific regions at E14.5,(More)
TAK1 kinase is an indispensable intermediate in several cytokine signaling pathways including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways. TAK1 also participates in stress-activated intracellular signaling pathways such as osmotic stress signaling pathway. TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1) is constitutively(More)
We have engineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) with dramatically enhanced functionality by fusing several heterologous proteins to the vesicle-associated toxin ClyA of Escherichia coli. Similar to native unfused ClyA, chimeric ClyA fusion proteins were found localized in bacterial OMVs and retained activity of the fusion partners, demonstrating(More)
The emerging broadband wireless access (BWA) technology based on IEEE 802.16 is one of the most promising solutions to provide ubiquitous wireless access to the broadband service at low cost. This paper proposes an efficient uplink bandwidth request-allocation algorithm for variable-rate realtime services in IEEE 802.16 BWA networks. In order to minimize(More)
The morphogenesis of fungiform papillae occurs in a stereotyped pattern on the dorsal surface of the tongue in mice from embryonic day 12 (E12) to E17. The histological results and ultrastructural observations showed the development of specific structures in the epithelium into fungiform papillae. Prior to the morphological changes, the Bmp-4 and Shh(More)
Various cellular and molecular events underlie the elevation and fusion of the developing palate that occurs during embryonic development. This includes convergent extension, where the medial edge epithelium is intercalated into the midline epithelial seam. We examined the expression patterns of Wnt11 and Fgfr1b - which are believed to be key factors in(More)
BACKGROUND The backup force of a guiding catheter is important for successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), however, no theory has been proposed thus far regarding the factors involved in its generation. METHODS AND RESULTS The backup force of guiding catheters was measured in an arterial tree model. In vitro modeling showed that larger-sized(More)