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The original Distributed-Queueing Request Update Multiple Access (DQRUMA)/Multi-code (MC)-Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) protocol was developed as a channel access protocol for wireless packet CDMA networks. We modify the original protocol, which was designed for data traffic only, to additionally accommodate voice traffic. We evaluate the performance(More)
, In this paper we introduce an enhanced DQRUMA/ MC-CDMA protocol for wireless packet networks. The original DQRUMA/MC-CDMA protocol may suffer severe code collisions due to a limited number of request codes. An enhanced DQRUMA/MC-CDMA protocol using minislots for request accesses is proposed to reduce request collisions. In the proposed protocol, request(More)
BACKGROUND Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is essential in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the optimal timing for initiating CRRT remains controversial, especially in elderly patients. Therefore, we investigated the outcomes of early CRRT initiation in elderly patients with AKI. METHODS A(More)
BENCHMARKS Controlled gene expression is important for elucidating gene functions and developing safer methods of gene therapy (1,2). Historically, early inducible expression systems were mainly based on responses of endogenous elements to exogenous signals or stresses such as heat shock, hormones, or metal ions. However, these systems lacked specificity(More)
Data regarding kidney transplantation (KT) and dialysis outcomes are rare in Asian populations. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with KT using claims data from the Korean national public health insurance program. Among the 35,418 adult patients with incident dialysis treated between 2005 and 2008 in Korea, 1539 underwent(More)
The original DQRUMA/MC-CDMA protocol may suffer severe code collisions due to a limited number of request codes. An enhanced DQRUMA/MC-CDMA protocol using minislots for request accesses is proposed to reduce request collisions. In the proposed protocol, request attempts are transmitted concurrently with data packets of other calls. A random scheme (Scheme(More)
Although hyponatremia is related to poorer outcomes in several clinical settings, its significance remains unresolved in kidney transplantation. Data on 1,786 patients who received kidney transplantations between January 2000 and December 2011 were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to the corrected sodium values for serum glucose(More)
BACKGROUND Weights assigned to comorbidities to predict mortality may vary based on the type of index disease and advances in the management of comorbidities. We aimed to develop a modified Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) in incident hemodialysis patients (mCCI-IHD), thereby improving risk stratification for mortality. METHODS Data on 24,738 Koreans who(More)