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Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type in the brain, provide metabolic and trophic support to neurons and modulate synaptic activity. In response to a brain injury, astrocytes proliferate and become hypertrophic with an increased expression of intermediate filament proteins. This process is collectively referred to as reactive astrocytosis. Lipocalin(More)
TWIK-1 is a member of the two-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channel family that plays an essential part in the regulation of resting membrane potential and cellular excitability. The physiological role of TWIK-1 has remained enigmatic because functional expression of TWIK-1 channels is elusive. Here we report that native TWIK-1 forms a functional channel at the(More)
TRPM4 channels are Ca2+-activated nonselective cation channels which are deeply involved in physiological and pathological conditions. However, their trafficking mechanism and binding partners are still elusive. We have found the 14-3-3γ as a binding partner for TRPM4b using its N-terminal fragment from the yeast-two hybrid screening. Ser88 at the(More)
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of cell-surface receptors that have a key role in regulating critical cellular processes. Here, to understand and precisely control RTK signalling, we report the development of a genetically encoded, photoactivatable Trk (tropomyosin-related kinase) family of RTKs using a light-responsive module based on(More)
Astrocytes release glutamate upon activation of various GPCRs to exert important roles in synaptic functions. However, the molecular mechanism of release has been controversial. Here, we report two kinetically distinct modes of nonvesicular, channel-mediated glutamate release. The fast mode requires activation of G(αi), dissociation of G(βγ), and subsequent(More)
Caspase-11 is an inducible protease that plays an important role in both inflammation and apoptosis. Inflammatory stimuli induce and activate caspase-11, which is required for the activation of caspase-1 or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) converting enzyme (ICE). Caspase-1 in turn mediates the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, which is(More)
Microglia-driven inflammatory responses have both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects in the CNS. The excessive and chronic activation of microglia, however, may shift the balance towards neurotoxic effects. In this regard, proteins secreted from activated microglia likely play a key role in the neurotoxic effects. To characterize secreted proteins of(More)
Calcyon, once known for interacting directly with the dopamine D(1) receptor (D(1)DR), is implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although its direct interaction with D(1)DR has been shown to be misinterpreted, it still plays important roles in D(1)DR(More)
Calcium signaling is important in many signaling processes in cancer cell proliferation and motility including in deadly glioblastomas of the brain that aggressively invade neighboring tissue. We hypothesized that disturbing Ca(2+) signaling pathways might decrease the invasive behavior of giloblastoma, extending survival. Evaluating a panel of(More)
Pulsatile release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is essential for pituitary gonadotrope function. Although the importance of pulsatile GnRH secretion has been recognized for several decades, the mechanisms underlying GnRH pulse generation in hypothalamic neural networks remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the ultradian rhythm of GnRH(More)