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The adenosinergic modulation of GABAergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) was investigated in mechanically dissociated rat tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Adenosine (100 microM) reversibly decreased mIPSC frequency without affecting the current amplitude,(More)
Although anticonvulsant drugs that block voltage-dependent Na+ channels have been widely used for neuropathic pain, including peripheral nerve injury-induced pain, much less is known about the actions of these drugs on immature trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Here we report the effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) and amitriptyline (ATL) on(More)
Occlusal alignment is known clinically to have a widespread influence on the stomatognathic system, including the temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscles. However, while occlusion is still an important determinant of most dental treatments, the exact effect of occlusal alignment is unclear because of a lack of conclusive scientific evidence. In this(More)
[Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited(More)
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