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The opening and closing of voltage-activated Na+, Ca2+ and K+ (Kv) channels underlies electrical and chemical signalling throughout biology, yet the structural basis of voltage sensing is unknown. Hanatoxin is a tarantula toxin that inhibits Kv channels by binding to voltage-sensor paddles, crucial helix-turn-helix motifs within the voltage-sensing domains(More)
Voltage-sensing domains enable membrane proteins to sense and react to changes in membrane voltage. Although identifiable S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains are found in an array of conventional ion channels and in other membrane proteins that lack pore domains, the extent to which their voltage-sensing mechanisms are conserved is unknown. Here we show that the(More)
Many human cancers express elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Available clinical data establish the protective effect of COX-2 inhibition on human cancer progression. However, despite these encouraging outcomes, the appearance of unwanted side effects remains a major hurdle for the(More)
Voltage-activated ion channels open and close in response to changes in voltage, a property that is essential for generating nerve impulses. Studies on voltage-activated potassium (Kv) channels show that voltage-sensor activation is sensitive to the composition of lipids in the surrounding membrane. Here we explore the interaction of lipids with S1-S4(More)
We cloned a gene from Methylophaga sp. strain SK1. This gene was responsible for producing, the blue pigment, indigo. The complete open reading frame was 1371 bp long, which encodes a protein of 456 amino acids. The molecular mass of the encoded protein was 105 kDa, consisting of homodimer of 54 kDa with an isoelectric point of 5.14. The deduced amino acid(More)
The venom from spiders, scorpions, and sea anemone contain a rich diversity of protein toxins that interact with ion channel voltage sensors. Although atomic structures have been solved for many of these toxins, the surfaces that are critical for interacting with voltage sensors are poorly defined. Hanatoxin and SGTx are tarantula toxins that inhibit(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease, the others being Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. In the last few decades, CWD has spread among captive and free-ranging cervids in 13 US states, two Canadian provinces and(More)
Voltage-activated ion channels are essential for electrical signaling, yet the mechanism of voltage sensing remains under intense investigation. The voltage-sensor paddle is a crucial structural motif in voltage-activated potassium (K(v)) channels that has been proposed to move at the protein-lipid interface in response to changes in membrane voltage. Here(More)
VSTx1 is a voltage sensor toxin from the spider Grammostola spatulata that inhibits KvAP, an archeabacterial voltage-activated K(+) channel whose X-ray structure has been reported. Although the receptor for VSTx1 and the mechanism of inhibition are unknown, the sequence of the toxin is related to hanatoxin (HaTx) and SGTx, two toxins that inhibit eukaryotic(More)
A series of small compounds acting at the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR92 were screened using a signaling pathway-specific reporter assay system. Lipid-derived molecules including farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), N-arachidonylglycine (NAG), and lysophosphatidic acid were found to activate GPR92. FPP and lysophosphatidic acid were able to activate both(More)