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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in immune modulation, inflammatory reactions, and target cell death in many pathologic conditions. The cell death pathways triggered by TNF include the caspase-8/Bid-dependent apoptotic pathway and the caspase-independent necrosis pathway (necroptosis). While the signaling pathways activated(More)
BACKGROUND The rapid growth of tumor parenchyma leads to chronic hypoxia that can result in the selection of cancer cells with a more aggressive behavior and death-resistant potential to survive and proliferate. Thus, identifying the key molecules and molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic changes associated with chronic hypoxia has valuable(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch is used in folk medicines to treat intestinal abscesses, acute appendicitis, and dysentery in Asia. Although recent reports indicate that Patrinia scabiosaefolia has sedative and anti-tumor effects, its effects on ulcerative colitis have not been previously explored. AIM OF THE STUDY To(More)
Previously, the authors demonstrated that the triterpenoid glycoside niga-ichigoside F₁ (NIF₁) and its aglycone 23-hydroxytormentic acid (23-HTA) isolated from the unripe fruits of Rubus coreanus (Rosaceae) ameliorate cisplatin-induced toxicity in renal epithelial LLC-PK₁ cells. In the present study, the nephroprotective effects of NIF₁ and 23-HTA were(More)
Caspase-11 is an inducible protease that plays an important role in both inflammation and apoptosis. Inflammatory stimuli induce and activate caspase-11, which is required for the activation of caspase-1 or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) converting enzyme (ICE). Caspase-1 in turn mediates the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, which is(More)
The development of nanocrystals has been intensively pursued, not only for their fundamental scientific interest, but also for many technological applications. The synthesis of monodisperse nanocrystals (size variation <5%) is of key importance, because the properties of these nanocrystals depend strongly on their dimensions. For example, the colour(More)
Hypoxia is a common cause of cell death and is implicated in many disease processes including stroke and chronic degenerative disorders. In response to hypoxia, cells express a variety of genes, which allow adaptation to altered metabolic demands, decreased oxygen demands, and the removal of irreversibly damaged cells. Using polymerase chain reaction-based(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) controls the cellular responses to hypoxia, activating transcription of a range of genes involved in adaptive processes such as increasing glycolysis and promoting angiogenesis. However, paradoxically, HIF-1 alpha also participates in hypoxic cell death. Several gene products, such as BNip3, RTP801, and Noxa,(More)
BNip3 is a member of Bcl-2 family proteins that displays proapoptotic activity. It contains Bcl-2 homology (BH) 3 and single carboxy terminal membrane-anchoring domain (TM), which targets to specific intracellular organelles, especially to mitochondria. Mitochondria play significant roles in apoptosis by releasing apoptogenic factors through large(More)