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Brief treatment with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulated the migration of macrophages, whereas long-term exposure decreased their migration. Cell migration stimulated by TGF-beta1 was markedly inhibited by 10 mug/mL Tat-C3 exoenzyme. TGF-beta1 increased mRNA and protein levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha in the initial(More)
The inhibitory activity of Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) rhizome constituents against sortase A, a bacterial surface protein anchoring transpeptidase, from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p was evaluated. The activity of the isolated compounds (1-4) was compared to that of the positive control,p-hydroxymecuribenzoic acid (pHMB). The biologically active(More)
Sortases are a family of Gram-positive transpeptidases responsible for anchoring surface protein virulence factors to the peptidoglycan cell wall layer. In Staphylococcus aureus, deletion of the sortase isoforms results in marked reduction in virulence and infection potential, making it an important antivirulence target. We examined the effects of naturally(More)
Phagocytosis occurs primarily through two main processes in macrophages: the Fcγ receptor- and the integrin αMβ2-mediated processes. Complement C3bi-opsonized particles are known to be engulfed through integrin αMβ2-mediated process, which is regulated by RhoA GTPase. C3 toxin fused with Tat-peptide (Tat-C3 toxin), an inhibitor of the Rho GTPases, was shown(More)
A new bis(indole) alkaloid (9) of the hamacanthin class along with the previously reported compounds of the related structural classes, topsentin class (1-4) and hamacanthin class (5-8), was isolated from the marine sponge Spongosorites sp. and their inhibitory activities toward sortase A (SrtA) that play key roles in cell-wall protein anchoring and(More)
cAMP induces neurite outgrowth in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line 12 (PC12). In particular, di-butyric cAMP (db-cAMP) induces a greater number of primary processes with shorter length than the number induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). db-cAMP up- and down-regulates GTP-RhoA levels in PC12 cells in a time-dependent manner. Tat-C3 toxin stimulates(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 plays several roles in a variety of cellular functions. TGF-β1 transmits its signal through Smad transcription factor-dependent and -independent pathways. It was reported that TGF-β1 activates NF-κB and RhoA, and RhoA activates NF-κB in several kinds of cells in a Smad-independent pathway. However, the activation(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 regulates diverse cellular functions. Particularly, TGF-β1 induces monocyte migration to sites of injury or inflammation in early period, whereas TGF-β1 inhibits cell migration in late phase. In this study, we attempted to understand how TGF-β1 suppresses cell migration in late phase. We found that TGF-β1 of short(More)
The sortase enzymes are a family of Gram-positive transpeptidases responsible for anchoring surface protein virulence factors to the peptidoglycan cell wall layer. In Staphylococcus aureus, deletion of the sortase isoforms results in marked reduction in virulence and infection potential, making it an important antivirulence target. Recombinant sortase A(More)
Fibrillar amyloid-beta (fAβ) peptide causes neuronal cell death, which is known as Alzheimer's disease. One of the mechanisms for neuronal cell death is the activation of microglia which releases toxic compounds like reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to fAβ. We observed that fAβ rather than soluble form blocked BV2 cell proliferation of microglial(More)