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Four new triterpenes, 21alpha-methylmelianodiol (1), 21beta-methylmelianodiol (2), hispidol A 25-methyl ether (3) and hispidol B 25-methyl ether (4), and a new coumarin, isoschininallylol (5), were isolated from the fruits of Poncirus trifoliata RAFINESQUE, along with seventeen known compounds. The structures of the new compounds (1 - 5) were elucidated by(More)
Methylmercury (MeHg) is well known as a neurotoxic chemical. However, little is mentioned about its neurotoxic mechanism or molecular target in human neuronal cells in particular. We show in this study that exposure of human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y, to MeHg dose- and time-dependently impairs viability and mRNA expression of selenoprotein W (SeW) with a(More)
Nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences of the M1 protein in 36 human influenza A viruses were analyzed. The neighbor joining tree of the nt sequences revealed several lineages associated with past epidemics of human influenza. However, the tree of aa sequences revealed only few specific lineages. This discrepancy in phylogeny between nt and aa(More)
BACKGROUND Methotrexate (MTX) has been widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as a variety of tumors. However, MTX-induced pulmonary toxicity is a serious and unpredictable side effect of the therapy, which includes allergic, cytotoxic or immunologic reactions, and is a major clinical problem. OBJECTIVE To(More)
This paper describes the spectrum of mutations induced by 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4-NQO) in the lacI target gene of the transgenic Big Blue Rat2 cell line. There are only a few report for the mutational spectrum of 4-NQO in a mammalian system although its biological and genetic effects have been well studied. Big Blue Rat2 cells were treated with 0.03125,(More)
UNLABELLED The <em>Janus kinase 1</em> (JAK1) gene encodes a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that is noncovalently associated with a variety of cytokine receptors and plays a nonredundant role in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. The mutated forms of JAK1 often altered the activation of JAK1 and then changed the activation of JAK1/STAT(More)
Iodothyronine deiodinase types I, II, and III (D1, D2, and D3, respectively), which constitute a family of selenoenzymes, activate and inactivate thyroid hormones through the removal of specific iodine moieties from thyroxine and its derivatives. These enzymes are important in the biological effects mediated by thyroid hormones. The expression of activating(More)
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) plays an important role in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, as it catalyzes all of the essential steps in iodide organification. TPO activity can be detected using the guaiacol assay; however, this assay is complex and very time-consuming. Therefore, we focused on devising a simplified method using microarrays to detect changes in TPO(More)
Assessing the potential carcinogenicity of human toxins represents an ongoing challenge. Chronic rodent bioassays predict human cancer risk with limited reliability, and are expensive and time-consuming. To identify alternative prediction methods, we evaluated a transcriptomics-based human in vitro model to classify carcinogens by their modes of action. The(More)
Phospholipidosis (PL), a disorder characterized by an accumulation of phospholipids in lysosome-derived multilamellar vesicles owing to abnormal lipid metabolism. Amiodarone (AM), an antiarrhythmic drug, can induce pulmonary PL. First, to evaluate potential mechanisms of phospholipidosis, we found lipid metabolism--related genes by microarray. PPARG, FADS2,(More)