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In ecological character displacement, traits involved in reproductive isolation may not evolve in arbitrary directions when changes in these traits are by-products of adaptation to an ecological niche. In reproductive character displacement, however, selection acts directly on reproductive characters to enhance the degree of reproductive isolation between(More)
Body size is clearly an important factor influencing the outcome of agonistic contests, but is often weakly correlated with dominance ranks in Zorotypus gurneyi Choe (Insecta: Zoraptera). The study of the development and dynamics of dominance relations using artificially constructed colonies show that age, or tenure within the colony, is the prime(More)
Korean populations of the genus Cryptocercus occur in forested mountains throughout South Korea. They live in monogamous associations in which parents care for their young in complex woody galleries. Single paired adults (23.2%) and one or both parents with their offspring (28.1%) were found most frequently in the field. Among single-parent families adult(More)
We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of species and subspecies of the cosmopolitan genus Pica using 813 bp of the mitochondrial genome (including portions of 16s rDNA, tRNA-Leu, and ND1). The phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pica revealed in our molecular analyses can be summarized as follows: (1). the Korean magpie (Pica pica sericea)(More)
We review key ecological and behavioral mechanisms under­ lying the origin and maintenance of larval sociality in the Lepidoptera. Using communication contexts of group defense, cohesion and recruitment as a framework we relate social complexity among gregarious caterpilla~ to three panerns of foraging: patch-restricted, nomadic, and central-place. A review(More)
Many environmental factors during the pre- or postnatal period can affect an individual's cognitive function and neural development throughout life. Little is known, however, about the combined effects of the pre- and postnatal environments on cognitive function of adult offspring and structural alterations in the adult brain. In this study, we confirmed(More)
The ability to distinguish among heterospecific individuals has been reported in only a few animal species. Humans can be viewed as a special type of heterospecifics because individuals differ widely in behavior, ranging from non-threatening to very threatening toward animals. In this study, we asked whether wild magpies can recognize individual humans who(More)
Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to(More)
When females search for mates and their perceived risk of predation increases, they less often express preferences for males that use conspicuous courtship signals, relaxing sexual selection on production of these signals. Here, we report an apparent exception to this general pattern. Courting male fiddler crabs Uca beebei sometimes build pillars of mud at(More)
Matriphagous young of a subsocial spider Amaurobius ferox exhibit collective predation during their post-maternal social period. In this paper, we examine functional mechanisms of collective predation by sibling groups. Predation efficiency increased with increasing number of individuals within each group. Solitary or paired individuals were generally(More)