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Vegetation composition was found to be an important factor controlling CH4 emission from an ombrotrophic peatland in the UK, with significantly greater (P < 0.01) CH4 released from areas containing both Eriophorum vaginatumL. and Sphagnum, than from similar areas without E. vaginatum. Positive correlations were observed between the amount of E. vaginatum(More)
The extraordinary properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes motivate the development of methods for their use in producing continuous, strong, tough fibres. Previous work has shown that the toughness of the carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer fibres exceeds that of previously known materials. Here we show that further increased toughness results from(More)
Biofuel cells that generate electricity from glucose in blood are promising for powering implantable biomedical devices. Immobilizing interconnected enzyme and redox mediator in a highly conducting, porous electrode maximizes their interaction with the electrolyte and minimizes diffusion distances for fuel and oxidant, thereby enhancing power density. Here(More)
Flexible, wearable, implantable and easily reconfigurable supercapacitors delivering high energy and power densities are needed for electronic devices. Here we demonstrate weavable, sewable, knottable and braidable yarns that function as high performance electrodes of redox supercapacitors. A novel technology, gradient biscrolling, provides(More)
Electrochemical deposition of MnO2 onto carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn gives a high-performance, flexible yarn supercapacitor. The hybrid yarn's blended structure, resulting from trapping of MnO2 in its internal pores, effectively enlarges electrochemical area and reduces charge diffusion length. Accordingly, the yarn supercapacitor exhibits high values of(More)
It is a challenge to fabricate graphene bulk materials with properties arising from the nature of individual graphene sheets, and which assemble into monolithic three-dimensional structures. Here we report the scalable self-assembly of randomly oriented graphene sheets into additive-free, essentially homogenous graphene sponge materials that provide a(More)
Fiber and yarn supercapacitors that are elastomerically deformable without performance loss are sought for such applications as power sources for wearable electronics, micro-devices, and implantable medical devices. Previously reported yarn and fiber supercapacitors are expensive to fabricate, difficult to upscale, or non-stretchable, which limits possible(More)
We report electrochemically powered, all-solid-state torsional and tensile artificial yarn muscles using a spinnable carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet that provides attractive performance. Large torsional muscle stroke (53°/mm) with minor hysteresis loop was obtained for a low applied voltage (5 V) without the use of a relatively complex three-electrode(More)
solar cells, [ 4 ] and photonic crystals, [ 5 ] 2D hexagonal structures and 3D inverted opal (IO) structures have recently been intensively studied. In order to fabricate uniform IO structures consisting of regular arrangements of spherical void spaces surrounded by solid walls, 2D and 3D colloidal crystals consisting of a regular arrangement of uniform(More)
We report mechanically robust, electrically conductive, free-standing, and transparent hybrid nanomembranes made of densified carbon nanotube sheets that were coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) using vapor phase polymerization and their performance as supercapacitors. The hybrid nanomembranes with thickness of ~66 nm and low areal density of ~15(More)