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Previous reports have shown that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regulatory protein Tat has both pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory properties, suggesting that Tat might contribute to the neurological complications of HIV. However, the intracellular mechanisms whereby Tat triggers free radical production and inflammation, and the relationship between(More)
HIV encephalitis (HIVE) is accompanied by brain inflammation, leukocyte infiltration, and glial activation, and HIV patients who abuse opiates are more likely to develop HIVE. To better understand how opiates could alter HIV-related brain inflammation, the expression of astrocyte (GFAP immunoreactivity) and macrophage/microglial (F4/80 or Mac1(More)
BACKGROUND HIV Associated Dementia (HAD) is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that erodes the quality of life for patients and burdens health care providers. Intravenous drug use is a major route of HIV transmission, and drug use is associated with increased HAD. Specific proteins released as a consequence of HIV(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection can cause characteristic neural defects such as progressive motor dysfunction, striatal pathology and gliosis. Recent evidence suggests that HIV-induced pathogenesis is exacerbated by heroin abuse and that the synergistic neurotoxicity is a direct effect of heroin on the CNS, an alarming observation considering(More)
Opiate abuse alters the progression of human immunodeficiency virus and may increase the risk of neuroAIDS. As neuroAIDS is associated with altered microglial reactivity, the combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus-Tat and morphine were determined in cultured microglia. Specifically, experiments determined the effects of Tat and morphine on(More)
HIV-1 patients who abuse opiate-based drugs, including heroin and morphine, are at a higher risk of developing HIV dementia. The effects of opiates are mediated predominantly through opioid receptors, which are expressed on glial cells. As HIV-1 infection in the CNS is restricted to glial cells, experiments were designed to measure the cell-specific effects(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to rise in drug-abusing populations and causes a dementing illness in a subset of individuals. Factors contributing to the development of dementia in this population remain unknown. We found that HIV-infected individuals with the E4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) or history of intravenous drug abuse(More)
BACKGROUND Neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), have shown great promise for protection and restoration of damaged or dying dopamine neurons in animal models and in some Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical trials. However, the delivery of neurotrophic factors to the brain is difficult due to their large size and(More)
Many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteins including Tat are produced by HIV-infected astrocytes and secreted into the brain resulting in extensive neuronal damage that contributes to the pathogenesis of HIV dementia. The neuroprotective hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2) is known to negatively regulate the HIV transcriptional promoter in human fetal(More)
In neurons, 14-3-3 proteins regulate diverse processes, including signal transduction, neurotransmitter production, and apoptosis by binding to target proteins, but the role 14-3-3 proteins play in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disease remains unclear. To examine the relationship between presence of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid(More)