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Glucagon gene transcription in the endocrine pancreas is regulated by at least four cis-acting DNA control elements. We showed previously that G1 is critical for alpha cell-specific expression. G1 contains three AT-rich sequences important for promoter function, which represent candidate binding sites for homeodomain transcription factors. Performing(More)
The paired box homeodomain Pax6 is crucial for endocrine cell development and function and plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis. Indeed, mutations of Pax6 are associated with diabetic phenotype. Importantly, homozygous mutant mice for Pax6 are characterized by markedly decreased β and δ cells and absent α cells. To better understand the critical(More)
The promoter element G1, critical for alpha-cell-specific expression of the glucagon gene, contains two AT-rich sequences important for transcriptional activity. Pax-6, a paired homeodomain protein previously shown to be required for normal alpha-cell development and to interact with the enhancer element G3 of the glucagon gene, binds as a monomer to the(More)
Specific expression of the glucagon gene in the rat pancreas requires the presence of the G1 element localized at -100/-49 base pairs on the promoter. Although it is known that multiple transcription factors such as Pax-6, Cdx-2/3, c-Maf, Maf-B, and Brain-4 can activate the glucagon gene promoter through G1, their relative importance in vivo is unknown. We(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The paired-homeobox genes pax-4 and pax-6 are crucial for islet development; whereas the null mutation of pax-6 results in the nearly absence of glucagon-producing alpha cells, pax-4 homozygous mutant mice lack insulin and somatostatin-producing beta and delta cells but contain an increased number of alpha cells suggesting that alpha cells(More)
BACKGROUND A significant proportion of severe familial forms of obesity remain genetically elusive. Taking advantage of our unique cohort of multigenerational obese families, we aimed to assess the contribution of rare mutations in 29 common obesity-associated genes to familial obesity, and to evaluate in these families the putative presence of nine known(More)
Ontogenic relationships between the different types of endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans were explored by generating transgenic mouse embryos in which cells transcribing the glucagon, insulin, or pancreatic polypeptide genes were destroyed through the promoter-targeted expression of the diphtheria toxin A chain. Embryos lacking glucagon- or(More)
Truncated glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is a potent incretin. Its synthesis and secretion are modulated by food, but the influence of individual nutrients remains to be established. The hypothesis that protein hydrolysates (peptones) can directly regulate both GLP-1 secretion and proglucagon (PG) gene transcription was tested in this study, ex vivo in the(More)
Glucagon gene expression is controlled by at least four DNA elements within the promoter; G2, G3, and G4 confer islet-specific expression, while G1 restricts glucagon transcription to alpha cells. Two islet-specific complexes are formed on G3, the insulin-responsive element of the glucagon gene; one of these corresponds to the paired homeodomain protein(More)