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X-SCLH/LIS syndrome is a neuronal migration disorder with disruption of the six-layered neocortex. It consists of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH, band heterotopia, or double cortex) in females and lissencephaly (LIS) in males, leading to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. We report the characterization of a novel CNS gene encoding a 40 kDa predicted(More)
OBJECTIVE Whole genome sequencing and the screening of 103 families recently led us to identify PRRT2 (proline-rich-transmembrane protein) as the gene causing infantile convulsions (IC) with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) (PKD/IC syndrome, formerly ICCA). There is interfamilial and intrafamilial variability and the patients may have IC or PKD.(More)
Malformations of neuronal migration such as lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria spectrum) are well-known causes of mental retardation and epilepsy that are often genetic. For example, isolated lissencephaly sequence and Miller-Dieker syndrome are caused by deletions involving a lissencephaly gene in chromosome 17p13.3, while many other malformation syndromes(More)
Epileptic encephalopathies are severe brain disorders with the epileptic component contributing to the worsening of cognitive and behavioral manifestations. Acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome, LKS) and continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep syndrome (CSWSS) represent rare and closely related childhood focal epileptic(More)
While disorders of neuronal migration are associated with as much as 25% of recurrent childhood seizures, few of the genes required to establish neuronal position in cerebral cortex are known. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) and lissencephaly (LIS), two distinct neuronal migration disorders producing epilepsy and variable cognitive impairment, can be(More)
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate (TPM) as add-on therapy in children less than 12 years of age with refractory epilepsy, according to epilepsy syndromes, we conducted an open, prospective, pragmatic and multicenter study in France. Efficacy was assessed, especially according to epilepsy syndromes, as well as tolerability. We included(More)
To better understand the role of inflammatory responses in temporal lobe epilepsy, we characterized Interleukin1-beta (IL1-beta), Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression together with neurodegeneration in the rat lithium-pilocarpine model. The immunohistochemical expression of IL1-beta, NF-kappaB, and COX-2 started by 12 h(More)
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is regarded as a benign form of epilepsy because of its usually favorable outcome, in terms of seizures. Eighteen children with BECTS were studied in terms of neuropsychological and learning abilities: intellectual quotient, oral language (phonological production, naming skills, verbal fluency and(More)
Autosomal dominant DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD) is usually caused by mutation in the gene encoding guanosine triphosphate-cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I). We studied 22 families with a phenotype of levodopa-responsive dystonia by sequencing the six coding exons, the 5'-untranslated region and the exon-intron boundaries of the GTPCH I gene. Eleven heterozygous(More)
Neuronal migration disorders can now be recognised by MRI. This paper reports two families in which the mothers had subcortical laminar heterotopia and four of their children had either similar heterotopia (two girls) or severe pachygyria or lissencephaly (two boys). Laminar heterotopia was more evident on MRI T2 weighted images. The patients had mild to(More)