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X-SCLH/LIS syndrome is a neuronal migration disorder with disruption of the six-layered neocortex. It consists of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH, band heterotopia, or double cortex) in females and lissencephaly (LIS) in males, leading to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. We report the characterization of a novel CNS gene encoding a 40 kDa predicted(More)
OBJECTIVE Whole genome sequencing and the screening of 103 families recently led us to identify PRRT2 (proline-rich-transmembrane protein) as the gene causing infantile convulsions (IC) with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) (PKD/IC syndrome, formerly ICCA). There is interfamilial and intrafamilial variability and the patients may have IC or PKD.(More)
Malformations of neuronal migration such as lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria spectrum) are well-known causes of mental retardation and epilepsy that are often genetic. For example, isolated lissencephaly sequence and Miller-Dieker syndrome are caused by deletions involving a lissencephaly gene in chromosome 17p13.3, while many other malformation syndromes(More)
Epileptic encephalopathies are severe brain disorders with the epileptic component contributing to the worsening of cognitive and behavioral manifestations. Acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome, LKS) and continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep syndrome (CSWSS) represent rare and closely related childhood focal epileptic(More)
Subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH), or 'double cortex', is a cortical dysgenesis disorder associated with a defect in neuronal migration. Clinical manifestations are epilepsy and mental retardation. This disorder, which mainly affects females, can be inherited in a single pedigree with lissencephaly, a more severe disease which affects the male(More)
Autosomal dominant DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD) is usually caused by mutation in the gene encoding guanosine triphosphate-cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I). We studied 22 families with a phenotype of levodopa-responsive dystonia by sequencing the six coding exons, the 5'-untranslated region and the exon-intron boundaries of the GTPCH I gene. Eleven heterozygous(More)
While disorders of neuronal migration are associated with as much as 25% of recurrent childhood seizures, few of the genes required to establish neuronal position in cerebral cortex are known. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) and lissencephaly (LIS), two distinct neuronal migration disorders producing epilepsy and variable cognitive impairment, can be(More)
BACKGROUND The Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe form of epilepsy that usually begins in early childhood, is difficult to treat. Dose-related drug toxicity is common. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine in patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Eligible patients had more than one type of(More)
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate (TPM) as add-on therapy in children less than 12 years of age with refractory epilepsy, according to epilepsy syndromes, we conducted an open, prospective, pragmatic and multicenter study in France. Efficacy was assessed, especially according to epilepsy syndromes, as well as tolerability. We included(More)
The Battery for Rapid Evaluation of Cognitive Functions (Batterie Rapide d'Evaluation des Fonctions Cognitives: BREV) was designed to provide health professionals with a quick clinical tool for screening acquired and developmental cognitive deficits in children aged 4 to 8 years. The BREV explores oral language in both its expressive and receptive forms,(More)