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Carrageenans water- and alkali-extracted from Chondracanthus chamissoi, Mazzaella laminarioides, Sarcothalia crispata, and Sarcothalia radula were degraded by Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora κ-carrageenase and Alteromonas fortis ι-carrageenase. The composition of the high molecular weight fraction (i.e., enzyme-resistant fraction) as well as the standard… (More)
Hybrid kappa/iota-carrageeans extracted from Gigartina skottsbergii, Chondracanthus chamissoï, and Chondrus crispus were incubated with Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora kappa-carrageenase and Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase. The degradation products as well as the resistant fraction were fully characterized by chromatography, NMR, and mass… (More)
Standard Eucheuma denticulatum iota-carrageenan was degraded with the Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase. The most abundant products, the neo-iota-carratetraose and neo-iota-carrahexaose were purified by permeation gel chromatography, and their corresponding (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were fully assigned.
This paper is the second part of a series of two papers dealing with bulking: a way to define quasi-order on cellular automata by comparing space-time diagrams up to rescaling. In the present paper, we introduce three notions of simulation between cellular automata and study the quasi-order structures induced by these simulation relations on the whole set… (More)