Jacques Laval

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The critical regulatory function of nitric oxide (NO) in many physiologic processes is well established. However, in an aerobic aqueous environment NO is known to generate one or more reactive and potentially toxic nitrogen oxide (NOx) metabolites. This has led to the speculation that mechanisms must exist in vivo by which these reactive intermediates are(More)
The roles of nitric oxide (NO) in numerous disease states have generated considerable discussion over the past several years. NO has been labeled as the causative agent in different pathophysiological mechanisms, yet appears to protect against various chemical species such as those generated under oxidative stress. Similarly, NO appears to exert a dichotomy(More)
Clustered DNA damages-two or more closely spaced damages (strand breaks, abasic sites, or oxidized bases) on opposing strands-are suspects as critical lesions producing lethal and mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation. However, as a result of the lack of methods for measuring damage clusters induced by ionizing radiation in genomic DNA, neither the(More)
We have investigated the excision of a variety of modified bases from DNA by the Escherichia coli Fpg protein (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) [Boiteux, S., O'Connor, T. R., Lederer, F., Gouyette, A., & Laval, J. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 3916-3922]. DNA used as a substrate was modified either by exposure to ionizing radiation or by photosensitization(More)
pBR322 plasmid DNA was treated with methylene blue plus visible light (MB-light) and tested for transformation efficiency in Escherichia coli mutants defective in either formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg protein) and/or UvrABC endonuclease. The survival of pBR322 DNA treated with MB-light was not significantly reduced when transformed into either(More)
The base excision repair (BER) of modified nucleotides is initiated by damage-specific DNA glycosylases. The repair of the resulting apurinic/apyrimidinic site involves the replacement of either a single nucleotide (short patch BER) or of several nucleotides (long patch BER). The mechanism that controls the selection of either BER pathway is unknown. We(More)
The excision of modified bases from DNA by Escherichia coli endonuclease III was investigated. Modified bases were produced in DNA by exposure of dilute buffered solutions of DNA to ionizing radiation under oxic or anoxic conditions. The technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify 16 pyrimidine- and(More)
The repair of 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-N-methyl-formamidopyrimidine (Fapy) residues in DNA is performed by a Fapy-DNA glycosylase activity which is encoded for by the fpg gene in Escherichia coli. Besides DNA glycosylase activity, this protein, the FPG protein, is endowed with an EDTA-resistant activity nicking DNA at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. To(More)
Substrate specificities of FPG protein (also known as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase) and 8-hydroxyguanine endonuclease were compared by using defined duplex oligodeoxynucleotides containing single residues of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine (8-oxodA), and(More)