Jacques J M van Alphen

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The haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria constitute a classical example of explosive speciation. Extensive intra- and interspecific variation in male nuptial coloration and female mating preferences, in the absence of postzygotic isolation between species, has inspired the hypothesis that sexual selection has been a driving force in the origin of this(More)
The role of selection in speciation is a central yet poorly understood problem in evolutionary biology. The rapid radiations of extremely colorful cichlid fish in African lakes have fueled the hypothesis that sexual selection can drive species divergence without geographical isolation. Here we present experimental evidence for a mechanism by which sexual(More)
Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial (mt) DNA have indicated that the cichlid species flock of the Lake Victoria region is derived from a single ancestral species found in East African rivers, closely related to the ancestor of the Lake Malawi cichlid species flock. The Lake Victoria flock contains ten times less mtDNA variation than the Lake Malawi(More)
Wolbachia are endocellular bacteria known for manipulating the reproductive systems of many of their invertebrate hosts. Wolbachia are transmitted vertically from mother to offspring. In addition, new infections result from horizontal transmission between different host species. However, to what extent horizontal transmission plays a role in the spread of a(More)
Traits under relaxed selection are expected to become reduced or disappear completely, a process called vestigialization. In parthenogenetic populations, traits historically involved in sexual reproduction are no longer under selection and potentially subject to such reduction. In Leptopilina clavipes, thelytokous (parthenogenetic) populations are infected(More)
Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria that alter their arthropod hosts' reproduction in various ways, including parthenogenesis induction (PI). Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis can have drastic effects on the genetic structure of its host because it potentially reduces populations to clones without genetic exchange. However, Wolbachia-induced(More)
Females infected with parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia bacteria can be cured from their infection by antibiotic treatment, resulting in male production. In most cases, however, these males are either sexually not fully functional, or infected females have lost the ability to reproduce sexually. We studied the decay of sexual function in males and females(More)
Because insects are ectotherms, their physiology, behaviour and fitness are influenced by the ambient temperature. Any changes in environmental temperatures may impact the fitness and life history traits of insects and, thus, affect population dynamics. Here, we experimentally tested the impact of heat shock on the fitness and life history traits of adults(More)
Wolbachia is a maternally inherited bacterium that manipulates the reproduction of its host. Recent studies have shown that male-killing strains can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) when introgressed into a resistant host. Phylogenetic studies suggest that transitions between CI and other Wolbachia phenotypes have also occurred frequently, raising(More)
In many haplochromine cichlid fish, male nuptial coloration is subject to female mate choice and plays a central role in the evolution of reproductive isolation between incipient species. Intraspecific variation in male coloration may serve as a target for diversifying sexual selection and provide a starting point for species divergence. Here, we(More)