Jacques Chiaroni

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Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5(More)
The HLA-G molecule plays an important role in immunomodulation. In a previous study carried out on a southern French population our team showed that HLA-G haplotypes, defined by SNPs in the coding region and specific SNPs located in 5'URR and 3'UTR regulatory regions, are associated with differential soluble HLA-G expression (sHLA-G). Furthermore, the(More)
BACKGROUND Recurrent AZFb deletions on the human Y chromosome are associated with an absence of ejaculated spermatozoa consequent to a meiotic maturation arrest that prevents the progression of germ cells to haploid stages. The extreme rarity of partial deletions has hampered the identification of the AZFb genes required for normal meiotic stages. The(More)
The archeological record indicates that the permanent settlement of Cyprus began with pioneering agriculturalists circa 11,000 years before present, (ca. 11,000 y BP). Subsequent colonization events followed, some recognized regionally. Here, we assess the Y-chromosome structure of Cyprus in context to regional populations and correlate it to phases of(More)
The physiological functions of natural killer (NK) cells in human immunity and reproduction depend upon diverse interactions between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their HLA class I ligands: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. The genomic regions containing the KIR and HLA class I genes are unlinked, structurally complex, and highly polymorphic.(More)
Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance(More)
BACKGROUND During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS(More)
Not all asthmatic patients adequately respond to current available treatments, such as inhaled corticosteroids or omalizumab®. New treatments will aim to target the bronchial epithelium-immune response interaction using different pathways. HLA-G is involved in immunomodulation and may promote epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. HLA-G protein(More)
Lung transplantation (LTx) is a valid therapeutic option for selected patients with end-stage lung disease. HLA-E seems to play a major role in the immune response to different viral infections and to affect transplantation outcome, in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, for example. Two nonsynonymous alleles, HLA-E(⁎)01:01 and HLA-E(⁎)01:03, have(More)
The treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections requires the use of primaquine, which can lead to severe haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals. However, most of the Latin American countries, which are still endemic for vivax malaria, lack information on the distribution of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd). No survey has been(More)