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In the computation of metal flux in aquatic systems, at consuming surfaces like organism membranes, diffusion processes of metal ions, ligands, and complex species, as well as the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of their chemical interactions, must be considered. The properties of many natural ligands, however, are complicated (formation of successive(More)
Several techniques for speciation analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni are used in freshwater systems and compared with respect to their performance and to the metal species detected. The analytical techniques comprise the following: (i) diffusion gradients in thin-film gels (DGT); (ii) gel integrated microelectrodes combined to voltammetric in situ profiling(More)
To investigate diffusion processes in agarose gel, nanoparticles with sizes in the range between 1 and 140 nm have been tested by means of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Understanding the diffusion properties in agarose gels is interesting, because such gels are good models for microbial biofilms and cells cytoplasm. The fluorescence correlation(More)
Measurements of trace metal species in situ in a softwater river, a hardwater lake, and a hardwater stream were compared to the equilibrium distribution of species calculated using two models, WHAM 6, incorporating humic ion binding model VI and visual MINTEQ incorporating NICA-Donnan. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and voltammetry at a gel(More)
Bipolar faradaic depolarization of the metal/solution interface is quantitatively analyzed for the case where the solution is subject to lateral flow and contains a quasi-reversible redox couple. Transversal convective diffusion of the electroactive species and a position-dependent degree of reversibility of the interfacial electron-transfer (e.t.) reaction(More)
Dynamic metal speciation analysis in aquatic ecosystems is emerging as a powerful basis for development of predictions of bioavailability and reliable risk assessment strategies. A given speciation sensor is characterized by an effective time scale or kinetic window that defines the measurable metal species via their labilities. Here we review the current(More)
Due to the complexity of the humic substances (HS), mathematical models have often been employed to understand their roles in the environment. Since no consensus exists with respect to the structure and conformation of the HS, models have alternatively given them properties corresponding to impermeable hard spheres or fully permeable polyelectrolytes. In(More)
The paper reports a new approach based on a gel-integrated Hg-plated-Ir-based microelectrode array (GIME), for measuring Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn speciation in natural waters. This paper focuses on the quantitative discrimination between mobile and colloidal metal species (size limit of a few nanometers), for which most classical separation techniques present(More)