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Parts 1 and 2 of this series are tutorial feature articles exceptionally published as Critical Reviews for editorial reasons. They intend to give to the nonspecialist an overview of the major aspects of the characterization of aquatic colloids in perspective of their properties. For this reason, there is a close link between parts 1 and 2, which in reality(More)
Several analytical techniques have been studied for the analysis and characterization of humic and fulvic compounds of freshwaters. DOC analysis, thermogravimetry, UV absorbance, fluorescence, cascade ultrafiltration, freezing concentration techniques are particularly discussed. The effects of several important factors, e.g. nature and concentration of(More)
Parts 1 and 2 of this series are tutorial feature articles exceptionally published as Critical Reviews for editorial reasons. They intend to give to the nonspecialist an overview of the major aspects of the characterization of aquatic colloids in relation to their physical and chemical properties. For this reason, there is a close link between parts 1 and(More)
Dynamic metal speciation analysis in aquatic ecosystems is emerging as a powerful basis for development of predictions of bioavailability and reliable risk assessment strategies. A given speciation sensor is characterized by an effective time scale or kinetic window that defines the measurable metal species via their labilities. Here we review the current(More)
Metal flux at consuming interfaces (e.g., sensors or microorganisms) is simulated in environmental multiligand systems using a new numerical code, MHEDYN (Multispecies HEterogeneous DYNamics), based on the lattice Boltzmann method. The attention is focused on the computation of the maximum flux of Cu(II), that is, the flux controlled by diffusion-reaction(More)
In the computation of metal flux in aquatic systems, at consuming surfaces like organism membranes, diffusion processes of metal ions, ligands, and complex species, as well as the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of their chemical interactions, must be considered. The properties of many natural ligands, however, are complicated (formation of successive(More)
The study of the role of dynamic metal speciation in lipophilic membrane permeability in aqueous solution requires accurate interpretation of experimental data. To meet this goal, a general theory is derived for describing 1:1 metal complex flux, under steady-state and ligand excess conditions, through a permeation liquid membrane (PLM). The theory is(More)
The various physicochemical factors that influence the flux of carrier-transported metal ions through permeation liquid membranes (PLM) are studied systematically. Understanding PLM behavior is important (i) to optimize the application of PLM as metal speciation sensors in environmental media and (ii) because PLM may serve as bioanalogical devices that help(More)
To investigate diffusion processes in agarose gel, nanoparticles with sizes in the range between 1 and 140 nm have been tested by means of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Understanding the diffusion properties in agarose gels is interesting, because such gels are good models for microbial biofilms and cells cytoplasm. The fluorescence correlation(More)