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The gastrointestinal mucosa contains a complex network of lymphoid compartments that have evolved to efficiently protect the host from invading pathogens. Recently, an additional lymphoid structure resembling Peyer's patches (PP) in composition and architecture has been identified in the murine small intestine, the isolated lymphoid follicle (ILF). In this(More)
Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are recently appreciated members of the mucosal immune system. The architecture, composition, and inducible nature of these structures indicates that these structures are tertiary lymphoid structures. The process leading to the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures, lymphoid neogenesis, has been observed in a number of(More)
Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are organized lymphoid structures that facilitate the efficient interaction of antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and lymphocytes to generate controlled adaptive immune responses within the intestine. Because CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) deficiency affects the generation of mucosal immune responses, we evaluated a(More)
Sepsis is a highly lethal disorder characterized by widespread apoptosis-induced depletion of immune cells and the development of a profound immunosuppressive state. IL-7 is a potent antiapoptotic cytokine that enhances immune effector cell function and is essential for lymphocyte survival. In this study, recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) efficacy and(More)
BACKGROUND Secondary hospital-acquired fungal infections are common in critically-ill patients and mortality remains high despite antimicrobial therapy. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent immunotherapeutic agent that improves host immunity and has shown efficacy in bacterial and viral models of infection. This study examined the ability of IL-7, which is(More)
The alpha(4) integrins alpha(4)beta(7) and alpha(4)beta(1), and their ligands mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) and VCAM-1, have diverse functions, including roles in the formation of secondary lymphoid tissues at early time points during the colonization and clustering of the fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and at(More)
Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients in the United States with over 210,000 deaths annually. One stumbling block to an effective therapy of sepsis has been the lack of a clinically relevant animal model. There are important distinctions in the mouse versus human immune system regarding the host response to invading pathogens.(More)
Sepsis is a severe, life-threatening infection and a leading cause of death in hospitals. A hallmark of sepsis is the profound apoptosis-induced depletion of lymphocytes generating a lymphopenic environment. As lymphopenia can induce nonantigen-driven homeostatic proliferation (HP), we examined this process during sepsis. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, which(More)
Immune suppression is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the patients with sepsis. Apoptotic loss of immune effector cells such as CD4 T and B cells is a key component in the loss of immune competence in sepsis. Inhibition of lymphocyte apoptosis has led to improved survival in animal models of sepsis. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain(More)
To assess the degree of lymphocyte apoptosis and survival in mice treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted to Bim, a proapoptotic molecule from the Bcl-2 family, within a clinically relevant model of sepsis. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a single dose of Bim siRNA complexed in cationic liposomes via tail vein injection. Approximately 24 h later,(More)