Learn More
BACKGROUND d-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates extinction of learned fear. The aim of this study was to examine whether DCS 1) affects reacquisition of fear (Experiment 1) and 2) produces generalized extinction of fear (Experiment 2). METHODS Following fear conditioning, where a light or a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with a white-noise burst(More)
The present study tested the prediction that D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, would facilitate extinction of conditioned freezing in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats received 5 light-shock pairings (conditioning). The following day, rats received 6 light-alone presentations (extinction training). Twenty-four hours later, rats(More)
Schizophrenia is characterized by, among other things, (a) information processing deficits that have been indexed by a number of measures, including deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex; and (b) pathophysiology of the frontal lobe. Recent studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the modulation of PPI in rats.(More)
Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychological disturbances in the industrialized world. Current behavioral therapy procedures for these disorders are somewhat effective, but their efficacy could be substantially improved. Because these procedures are largely based on the process of extinction, manipulations that enhance extinction may lead to(More)
The current review systematically documents the role of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) in different aspects of fear memory-acquisition and consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction, and attempts to resolve apparent contradictions in the data in order to identify the function of GABA(A) receptors in fear memory. First, numerous studies have shown that(More)
Several recent studies have reported that D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, facilitates extinction of learned fear in rats. Other studies have shown that representation of the unconditioned stimulus (US) can reinstate learned fear after extinction. This study examined whether this reinstatement effect occurs in Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
The hypothesis that the standard acoustic startle habituation paradigm contains the elements of Pavlovian fear conditioning was tested. In a potentiated startle response paradigm, a startle stimulus and a light conditioned stimulus (CS) were paired. A startle stimulus then was tested alone or following the CS. Freezing behavior was measured to index(More)
The relation between long-term decrements of the acoustic startle response in rats and the development of freezing behavior during habituation training was examined. Freezing behavior developed over the initial trials of habituation training, and the rate of long-term response decrements was found to be inversely related to the development of freezing.(More)
The current study examined the effects of systemic administration of a GABA agonist [midazolam (MDZ)] and a GABA antagonist (bicuculline) on fear responding after brief CS exposure, a procedure thought to involve memory reconsolidation. Using a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm, rats were initially given two context-shock training trials, followed 24(More)
Hearing adults, 8-and 6-year-old children, together with deaf 9-year-old children , were tested on a unimodal haptic matching task. One additional group of adults was tested with a shorter stimulus presentation time. Data indicated that left-hand superiority was most evident in the performances of the older hearing children, and of the adults with the(More)