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Primary cilia are nearly ubiquitous cellular appendages that provide important sensory and signaling functions. Ciliary dysfunction underlies numerous human diseases, collectively termed ciliopathies. Primary cilia have distinct functions on different cell types and these functions are defined by the signaling proteins that localize to the ciliary membrane.(More)
No treatment exists for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), one of the most common inherited muscle diseases. Although FSHD can be debilitating, little effort has been made to develop targeted therapies. This lack of focus on targeted FSHD therapy perpetuated because the genes and pathways involved in the disorder were not understood. Now, more(More)
Primary cilia were first detected on neurons in the mammalian brain over 40 years ago using electron microscopy. However, this approach is very labor intensive and has inherent limitations that restrict its utility for studying neuronal cilia. While the study of cilia in other tissues was greatly facilitated by the identification of specific ciliary(More)
D4Z4 repeats are present in at least 11 different mammalian species, including humans and mice. Each repeat contains an open reading frame encoding a double homeodomain (DUX) family transcription factor. Aberrant expression of the D4Z4 ORF called DUX4 is associated with the pathogenesis of Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). DUX4 is toxic to(More)
The DUX4 gene, encoded within D4Z4 repeats on human chromosome 4q35, has recently emerged as a key factor in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). This recognition prompted development of animal models expressing the DUX4 open reading frame (ORF) alone or embedded within D4Z4 repeats. In the first published(More)
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