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The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology has revised concepts, terminology, and approaches for classifying seizures and forms of epilepsy. Generalized and focal are redefined for seizures as occurring in and rapidly engaging bilaterally distributed networks (generalized) and within networks limited to one(More)
PURPOSE We report a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial of bilateral stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus for localization-related epilepsy. METHODS Participants were adults with medically refractory partial seizures, including secondarily generalized seizures. Half received stimulation and half no stimulation during a 3-month(More)
To improve patient care and facilitate clinical research, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) appointed a Task Force to formulate a consensus definition of drug resistant epilepsy. The overall framework of the definition has two "hierarchical" levels: Level 1 provides a general scheme to categorize response to each therapeutic intervention,(More)
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is one of the most severe epileptic encephalopathies of childhood onset. The cause of this syndrome can be symptomatic (ie, secondary to an underlying brain disorder) or cryptogenic (ie, has no known cause). Although Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is commonly characterised by a triad of signs, which include multiple seizure types, slow(More)
Temporal lobectomy is an effective therapy for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but may be complicated by amnestic syndromes. Therefore, pre-surgical evaluation to assess the risk/benefit ratio for surgery is required. Intracarotid amobarbital testing (IAT) is currently the most widely used method for assessing pre-surgical memory(More)
Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, and is characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate seizures. Despite progress in pharmacological and surgical treatments of epilepsy, relatively little is known about the processes leading to the generation of individual seizures, and about the mechanisms whereby a healthy brain is(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the evidence demonstrating efficacy, tolerability, and safety of seven new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, tiagabine, oxcarbazepine, levetiracetam, and zonisamide) in the treatment of children and adults with refractory partial and generalized epilepsies. METHODS A 23-member committee including general(More)
OBJECTIVE To reassess the evidence for management issues related to the care of women with epilepsy (WWE) during pregnancy. METHODS Systematic review of relevant articles published between January 1985 and June 2007. RESULTS It is highly probable that intrauterine first-trimester valproate (VPA) exposure has higher risk of major congenital malformations(More)
PURPOSE Three randomized, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of levetiracetam, a new antiepileptic medication, as add-on therapy for partial-onset seizures. The purpose of this study was to gather additional safety and efficacy data on levetiracetam in the real-world setting of community-based practice. METHODS This was a(More)
Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is associated with widespread cortical network abnormalities on electroencephalography. Resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), based on fMRI, can assess the brain's global functional organization and its disruption in clinical conditions. We compared RSFC associated with the 'default mode network' (DMN) between(More)