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The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology has revised concepts, terminology, and approaches for classifying seizures and forms of epilepsy. Generalized and focal are redefined for seizures as occurring in and rapidly engaging bilaterally distributed networks (generalized) and within networks limited to one(More)
To improve patient care and facilitate clinical research, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) appointed a Task Force to formulate a consensus definition of drug resistant epilepsy. The overall framework of the definition has two "hierarchical" levels: Level 1 provides a general scheme to categorize response to each therapeutic intervention,(More)
PURPOSE We report a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial of bilateral stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus for localization-related epilepsy. METHODS Participants were adults with medically refractory partial seizures, including secondarily generalized seizures. Half received stimulation and half no stimulation during a 3-month(More)
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is one of the most severe epileptic encephalopathies of childhood onset. The cause of this syndrome can be symptomatic (ie, secondary to an underlying brain disorder) or cryptogenic (ie, has no known cause). Although Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is commonly characterised by a triad of signs, which include multiple seizure types, slow(More)
Temporal lobectomy is an effective therapy for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but may be complicated by amnestic syndromes. Therefore, pre-surgical evaluation to assess the risk/benefit ratio for surgery is required. Intracarotid amobarbital testing (IAT) is currently the most widely used method for assessing pre-surgical memory(More)
Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, and is characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate seizures. Despite progress in pharmacological and surgical treatments of epilepsy, relatively little is known about the processes leading to the generation of individual seizures, and about the mechanisms whereby a healthy brain is(More)
Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is associated with widespread cortical network abnormalities on electroencephalography. Resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), based on fMRI, can assess the brain's global functional organization and its disruption in clinical conditions. We compared RSFC associated with the 'default mode network' (DMN) between(More)
Experimental evidence and clinical observations indicate that brain inflammation is an important factor in epilepsy. In particular, induction of interleukin-converting enzyme (ICE)/caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β/IL-1 receptor type 1 axis both occur in human epilepsy, and contribute to experimentally induced acute seizures. In this study,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess efficacy and safety of once-daily 8 or 12 mg perampanel, a noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, when added to concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the treatment of drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. METHODS This was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the feasibility of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect asymmetries in the lateralization of memory activation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). BACKGROUND Assessment of mesial temporal lobe function is a critical aspect of the preoperative evaluation for epilepsy surgery, both for predicting(More)