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BACKGROUND Breast cancer incidence rates have historically been 4-7 times higher in the United States than in China or Japan, although the reasons remain elusive. When Chinese, Japanese, or Filipino women migrate to the United States, breast cancer risk rises over several generations and approaches that among U.S. Whites. PURPOSE Our objective was to(More)
Breast cancer rates among Asian-Americans are lower than those of US whites but considerably higher than rates prevailing in Asia. It is suspected that migration to the US brings about a change in endocrine function among Asian women, although reasons for this change remain obscure. The high intake of soy in Asia and its reduced intake among Asian-Americans(More)
We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese-, Japanese- and Filipino-American women in Los Angeles County Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), San Francisco-Oakland MSA and Oahu, Hawaii. One objective of the study was to quantify breast cancer risks in relation to menstrual and reproductive histories in migrant and(More)
Results are described from four epidemiologic studies in the United States which used random digit dialing in over 30,000 households to identify controls from the general population for use in case-control studies. Methods and problems in telephone sampling are discussed. It is concluded that if complete population rosters are unavailable and if the(More)
To evaluate the relationship between use of oral contraceptives and risk of invasive cervical cancer, a case-control study involving 479 patients and 789 population controls was undertaken in 5 geographic regions of the US. Initially, the relationship was obscured by confounding variables, particularly the interval since last Pap smear. Control for this(More)
Fecal mutagenicity was measured in 68 patients with colorectal cancer and in 114 controls, using Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100 with and without S9 activation. Samples were also tested for fecapentaenes by high-performance liquid chromatography, to permit the separation of fecapentaene and non-fecapentaene mutagenicity. Overall, no significant(More)
The fecapentaenes are potent mutagens found in high concentrations in the stools of some individuals. These compounds are produced in vivo by common species of the colonic microflora, from precursors of unknown origin. The fecapentaenes have been postulated to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. To test this hypothesis, we measured fecapentaene(More)
A case-control study of 41 patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) or invasive cancer of the vagina and 97 community controls was undertaken to identify potential risk factors. Although vaginal and cervical cancers often occur as multiple primaries, only a few common risk factors prevailed. Similar to cervical cancer, low education and family income were risk(More)
In computer-assisted telephone interviewing, questions are displayed on a computer screen, and responses are entered directly into a computerized data file. In 1981-1982, a randomized trial of computer-assisted telephone interviewing, compared with telephone interviewing with responses directly recorded on printed questionnaires, was carried out. The(More)