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Hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) commonly hibernate in shallow, natal nests where winter temperatures may fall below -10 degrees C. Although hatchlings are moderately freeze-tolerant, they apparently rely on supercooling to survive exposure to severe cold. We investigated seasonal changes in physiology and in the development of supercooling(More)
Hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) hibernate in their shallow natal nests where temperatures occasionally fall below -10 C during cold winters. Because the thermal limit of freeze tolerance in this species is approximately -4 C, hatchlings rely on supercooling to survive exposure to extreme cold. We investigated the influence of environmental ice(More)
Bergmann’s rule states that, among conspecific populations, individuals are larger in cooler than in warmer environments as a consequence of selection related to heat conservation. Many of the most comprehensive assessments of Bergmann’s rule to date have examined clinal patterns in body size among species assemblages. Our study is a more direct test of(More)
North American turtles hatch in late summer and spend their first winter either on land or underwater. Adaptations for terrestrial overwintering of hatchlings in northern regions, where winter thermal and hydric regimes are harsh, have not been systematically investigated in many species. We measured intrinsic supercooling capacity, resistance to(More)
Conservation biology integrates multiple disciplines to expand the ability to identify threats to populations and develop mitigation for these threats. Road ecology is a branch of conservation biology that examines interactions between wildlife and roadways. Although the direct threats of road mortality and habitat fragmentation posed by roads have received(More)
Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to(More)
Testudines demonstrate a range of beak morphologies that can be categorized into five basic forms: smooth, notched, monocuspid, bicuspid, and tricuspid. Species with a bicuspid or tricuspid premaxilla bear upper jaw notches bordered on each side by tooth-like cusps called tomiodonts. These conspicuous and rather unique “teeth” are detailed in the early(More)
Pollinating insects are vital to the survival of many primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems, as up to 80–85 % of the world’s flowering plants require pollinators for reproduction. Over the last few decades however, numerous pollinating insect populations have declined substantially. The causes of these declines are multifaceted and synergistic, and(More)
Many temperate animals spend half their lives in a non-active, overwintering state, and multiple adaptations have evolved to enable winter survival. One notable vertebrate model is Chrysemys picta, whose hatchlings display dichotomous overwintering strategies: some hatchlings spend their first winter aquatically after nest emergence in the autumn, whereas(More)
Emissions from smelting not only contaminate water and soil with metals, but also induce extensive forest dieback and changes in resource availability and microclimate. The relative effects of such co-occurring stressors are often unknown, but this information is imperative in developing targeted restoration strategies. We assessed the role and relative(More)