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Bergmann's rule states that, among conspecific populations, individuals are larger in cooler than in warmer environments as a consequence of selection related to heat conservation. Many of the most comprehensive assessments of Bergmann's rule to date have examined clinal patterns in body size among species assemblages. Our study is a more direct test of(More)
Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to(More)
Conservation biology integrates multiple disciplines to expand the ability to identify threats to populations and develop mitigation for these threats. Road ecology is a branch of conservation biology that examines interactions between wildlife and roadways. Although the direct threats of road mortality and habitat fragmentation posed by roads have received(More)
Life histories evolve in response to constraints on the time available for growth and development. Nesting date and its plasticity in response to spring temperature may therefore be important components of fitness in oviparous ectotherms near their northern range limit, as reproducing early provides more time for embryos to complete development before(More)
Sexually dimorphic characters are common among vertebrates and are particularly well represented among emydid turtles. For 190 years, tomiodonts have been used as a descriptor in testudine anatomy, phylogenetics, and natural history; however, no quantitative evaluation of their function and potential dimorphism has ever been completed. Using morphometric(More)
Testudines demonstrate a range of beak morphologies that can be categorized into five basic forms: smooth, notched, monocuspid, bicuspid, and tricuspid. Species with a bicuspid or tricuspid premaxilla bear upper jaw notches bordered on each side by tooth-like cusps called tomiodonts. These conspicuous and rather unique “teeth” are detailed in the early(More)
Pollinating insects are vital to the survival of many primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems, as up to 80–85 % of the world’s flowering plants require pollinators for reproduction. Over the last few decades however, numerous pollinating insect populations have declined substantially. The causes of these declines are multifaceted and synergistic, and(More)
Many temperate animals spend half their lives in a non-active, overwintering state, and multiple adaptations have evolved to enable winter survival. One notable vertebrate model is Chrysemys picta, whose hatchlings display dichotomous overwintering strategies: some hatchlings spend their first winter aquatically after nest emergence in the autumn, whereas(More)
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