Jacqueline Birks

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BACKGROUND Our aim was to assess the long-term risks of death, disability, and rebleeding in patients randomly assigned to clipping or endovascular coiling after rupture of an intracranial aneurysm in the follow-up of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT). METHODS 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were enrolled between 1994(More)
BACKGROUND Extracts of the leaves of the maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba, have long been used in China as a traditional medicine for various disorders of health. A standardized extract is widely prescribed for the treatment of a range of conditions including memory and concentration problems, confusion, depression, anxiety, dizziness, tinnitus and headache.(More)
INTRODUCTION Flow diversion is a new approach to the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms which uses a high density mesh stent to induce sac thrombosis. These devices have been designed for the treatment of complex shaped and large size aneurysms. So far published safety and efficacy data on this approach is sparse. MATERIAL AND METHODS Over 8(More)
BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One of the aims of therapy is to inhibit the breakdown of a chemical neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, by blocking the relevant enzyme. This can be done by a group of chemicals known as cholinesterase inhibitors. However, some (like tacrine) are associated with adverse(More)
BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease is the commonest cause of dementia affecting older people. One of the therapeutic strategies aimed at ameliorating the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by the use of cholinesterase inhibitors to delay the breakdown of acetylcholine released into synaptic(More)
BACKGROUND Dementia is an age-related condition in which Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease account for the bulk of cases. The role played by calcium in regulating brain functions is well known - the calcium ion links membrane excitation to subsequent intracellular enzymatic response. Change in calcium homeostasis is one important effect(More)
BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people accounting for some 60% of cases with late-onset cognitive deterioration. It is now thought that several neurotransmitter dysfunctions are involved from an early stage in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease-associated cognitive decline. The efficacy of selegiline for(More)
BACKGROUND Problems with memory which do not meet the diagnostic criteria for dementia, usually called mild cognitive impairment (MCI), can be the first sign of an impending dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is no consensus on a definition or diagnostic criteria for MCI, and MCI remains a vague term and those so described are a(More)
BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One of the aims of therapy is to inhibit the breakdown of a chemical neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, by blocking the relevant enzyme. This can be done by a group of chemicals known as cholinesterase inhibitors. However, some (like tacrine) are associated with adverse(More)
OBJECTIVES to examine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and folate deficiency in later life in representative samples of the elderly population in the United Kingdom. DESIGN a population-based cross-sectional analysis of 3,511 people aged 65 years or older from three studies was used to estimate the age-specific prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency(More)