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Pollinators are a key component of global biodiversity, providing vital ecosystem services to crops and wild plants. There is clear evidence of recent declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in the plants that rely upon them. Here we describe the nature and extent of reported declines, and review the potential drivers of(More)
We studied the extent to which worker honey bees acquire information from waggle dances throughout their careers as foragers. Small groups of foragers were monitored from time of orientation flights to time of death and all in-hive behaviors relating to foraging were recorded. In the context of a novice forager finding her first food source, 60% of the bees(More)
Foraging behaviour of individually marked workers of Melipona beecheii (Meliponinae) was monitored in Costa Rica to investigate individual specialisation for different materials and how this influences foraging longevity. The majority of the individuals harvested one commodity (pollen, nectar or resin) during a single day. Half of the age-marked foragers(More)
An individual-oriented model is constructed which simulates the collective foraging behaviour of a colony of honey-bees, Apis mellifera. Each bee follows the same set of behavioural rules. Each rule consists of a set of conditions followed by the behavioural act to be performed if the conditions are fulfilled. The set of conditions comprises the state of(More)
Social insect colonies need to explore and exploit multiple food sources simultaneously and efficiently. At the individual level, this colony-level behaviour has been thought to be taken care of by two types of individual: scouts that independently search for food, and recruits that are directed by nest mates to a food source. However, recent analyses show(More)
In an experimental set-up, a colony of the stingless bee Melipona fasciata demonstrated its ability to choose the better of two nectar sources. This colony pattern was a result of the following individual behavioural decisions: continue foraging, abandon the feeder, restart foraging and initiate foraging. Only very rarely did individuals switch from one(More)
Social insect foragers have to make foraging decisions based on information that may come from two different sources: information learned and memorised through their own experience (“internal” information) and information communicated by nest mates or directly obtained from their environment (“external” information). The role of these sources of information(More)
Habitat loss poses a major threat to biodiversity, and species-specific extinction risks are inextricably linked to life-history characteristics. This relationship is still poorly documented for many functionally important taxa, and at larger continental scales. With data from five replicated field studies from three countries, we examined how species(More)
Declines in insect pollinators across Europe have raised concerns about the supply of pollination services to agriculture. Simultaneously, EU agricultural and biofuel policies have encouraged substantial growth in the cultivated area of insect pollinated crops across the continent. Using data from 41 European countries, this study demonstrates that the(More)
In the dry tropics, foraging bees face significant thermal constraints as a result of high ambient temperatures and direct insolation. In order to determine the potential importance of body size and body coloration in heat gain and heat loss, passive warm-up and cooling rates were measured for freshly killed workers of 24 stingless bee species. Results(More)