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BACKGROUND Depression in old age is associated with an increased mortality risk of cardiovascular disease but the mortality risk from non-cardiovascular causes is disputed. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of depression on cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality in old age. METHODS We prospectively followed 500 subjects from age 85 years(More)
Aging is associated with an impaired capacity of the immune system to respond properly to danger signals, such as infection and cancer. Here, we provide evidence that an impaired innate immune response, as measured by a low production capacity of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines upon ex vivo standardized danger signalling with bacterial LPS, is(More)
The association between inflammation and neuropsychiatric symptoms in old age is generally accepted but poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether inflammation precedes depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in old age, and to identify specific inflammatory pathways herein. We measured serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and(More)
OBJECTIVE Because studies on the association of sensory impairment (both hearing and visual impairment) and cognitive functioning in elderly persons yielded conflicting results, the authors explored this association within the Leiden 85+ Study. METHODS Within this population-based study of 459 participants aged 85+ years, hearing impairment was measured(More)
The aim was to investigate the incidence rate of dementia for community residents aged 85 years and over. It was a two wave community study of 224 subjects (community residents including those residing in a nursing home) older than 85 years, restudied 4.1 years after a community prevalence study. A two stage method was used, comprising the mini mental state(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive impairment is common in the oldest old. This might influence the sensitivity and specificity of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Few studies, however, have included subjects older than 85 years to evaluate the GDS-15 as a screening instrument for depression. OBJECTIVE To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the(More)
OBJECTIVE The impact of depression and perceived loneliness in the oldest old is largely unknown. The authors studied the relationship between the presence of depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in old age, especially the potential distorting effect of perceived loneliness. METHOD Within a prospective population-based study of 85-year-olds, the(More)
OBJECTIVE Limited formal education is associated with poor cognitive function. This could explain sex differences in cognitive function in the oldest old. Whether limited formal education explains differences in cognitive function between elderly women and men was explored. METHODS The Leiden 85-plus Study is a population based study investigating all 85(More)
BACKGROUND The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors including hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose metabolism, associated with cardiovascular disease. The metabolic syndrome also appears to predispose to cognitive dysfunction and dementia. In this study the association between the metabolic syndrome and cognitive function was(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the performance of classic risk factors, and of some new biomarkers, in predicting cardiovascular mortality in very old people from the general population with no history of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN The Leiden 85-plus Study (1997-2004) is an observational prospective cohort study with 5 years of follow-up. SETTING General(More)