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BACKGROUND Depression in old age is associated with an increased mortality risk of cardiovascular disease but the mortality risk from non-cardiovascular causes is disputed. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of depression on cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality in old age. METHODS We prospectively followed 500 subjects from age 85 years(More)
The association between inflammation and neuropsychiatric symptoms in old age is generally accepted but poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether inflammation precedes depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in old age, and to identify specific inflammatory pathways herein. We measured serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and(More)
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. At the same time, cardiovascular disease and stroke are important risk factors for dementia. We assessed the association between total and fractionated cholesterol and cognitive impairment and explored whether observed associations were(More)
Aging is associated with an impaired capacity of the immune system to respond properly to danger signals, such as infection and cancer. Here, we provide evidence that an impaired innate immune response, as measured by a low production capacity of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines upon ex vivo standardized danger signalling with bacterial LPS, is(More)
Background—Experimental evidence indicates that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficiency is associated with the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between low IL-10 production levels, history of stroke, and incident fatal stroke. Summary of Report—All 85-year-old inhabitants of Leiden, Netherlands (nϭ599) were(More)
  • Jacobijn Gussekloo, L E de Bont, +5 authors R G Westendorp
  • 2003
BACKGROUND Very few older people with severe hearing loss use hearing aids to reduce the negative consequences of reduced hearing in daily functioning. AIM Assessment of a screening test and a standardised auditory rehabilitation programme for older people from the general population with untreated severe hearing loss. DESIGN OF STUDY Intervention study(More)
OBJECTIVE Because studies on the association of sensory impairment (both hearing and visual impairment) and cognitive functioning in elderly persons yielded conflicting results, the authors explored this association within the Leiden 85+ Study. METHODS Within this population-based study of 459 participants aged 85+ years, hearing impairment was measured(More)
The aim was to investigate the incidence rate of dementia for community residents aged 85 years and over. It was a two wave community study of 224 subjects (community residents including those residing in a nursing home) older than 85 years, restudied 4.1 years after a community prevalence study. A two stage method was used, comprising the mini mental state(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive impairment is common in the oldest old. This might influence the sensitivity and specificity of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Few studies, however, have included subjects older than 85 years to evaluate the GDS-15 as a screening instrument for depression. OBJECTIVE To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the temporal relation between depression and cognitive impairment in old age. DESIGN Prospective, population based study with four years of follow up. SETTING City of Leiden, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS 500 people aged 85 years at recruitment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Annual assessments of depressive symptoms (15 item geriatric(More)