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Theories based on competition for resources predict a monotonic negative relationship between population density and individual biomass in plant populations. They do not consider the role of facilitative interactions, which are known to be important in high stress environments. Using an individual-based 'zone-of-influence' model, we investigated the(More)
To test several predictions of a model of linear, size-dependent reproductive output in plants, we analyzed the relationship between shoot vegetative (v) and reproductive (r) mass in five experiments on Solidago altissima from an invading population in Switzerland. There was large environmentally-induced and genetic variation in r and v. A large amount of(More)
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) measured from the ear canal can be a sensitive tool to detect changes in cochlear function over time. However, if multiple-measurement procedures are to be useful clinically, testing needs to be reliable and sources of variability within individuals should be known. Herein, the influence of time-of-day(More)
Measurement of the transmitted intensity from a coherent monomode light source through a series of subwavelength slit arrays in Ag films, with varying array pitch and number of slits, demonstrates enhancement ͑suppression͒ by factors of as much as 6 ͑9͒ when normalized to the transmission efficiency of an isolated slit. Pronounced minima in the transmitted(More)
As crowded populations of plants develop, the growth of some plants is accompanied by the death of others, a process called density-dependent mortality or 'self-thinning'. During the course of density-dependent mortality, the relationship between total population biomass (B) and surviving plant density (N) is allometric: B = aN(b). Essentially, increasing(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Plant biomass-density relationships during self-thinning are determined mainly by allometry. Both allometry and biomass-density relationship have been shown to vary with abiotic conditions, but the effects of biotic interactions have not been investigated. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and affect plant form.(More)
Evolutionary theory can be applied to improve agricultural yields and/or sustainability, an approach we call Evolutionary Agroecology. The basic idea is that plant breeding is unlikely to improve attributes already favored by millions of years of natural selection, whereas there may be unutilized potential in selecting for attributes that increase total(More)
We hypothesize that the continuum between generalist and specialist adaptations is an important general trade-off axis in the maintenance of local diversity, and we explore this idea with a simple model in which there are patch types to which species arrive as propagules and compete. Each patch type is defined by a competitive ranking of all species. A(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Competition drives self-thinning (density-dependent mortality) in crowded plant populations. Facilitative interactions have been shown to affect many processes in plant populations and communities, but their effects on self-thinning trajectories have not been investigated. METHODS Using an individual-based 'zone-of-influence' model, we(More)
Colloidal solutions of ZnO-Cu nanoparticles can be used as catalysts for the reduction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. The use of phosphinate ligands for the synthesis of the nanoparticles from organometallic precursors improves the reductive stability and catalytic activity of the system.