An age-related decline in cytolytic activity has been described in CD8+ T cells and we have previously shown that the poor CD8+ effector T cell responses to influenza A/H3N2 challenge result from a decline in the proportion and function of these cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here, we describe that addition of exogenous cytokines to influenza-stimulated… (More)
Influenza and pneumonia are leading causes of death in elderly populations. With age, there is an increased inflammatory response and slower viral clearance during influenza infection which increases the risk of extended illness and mortality. Here we employ a preclinical murine model of influenza infection to examine the protective capacity of vaccination… (More)
T follicular helper (TFH) cell responses are essential for generation of protective humoral immunity during influenza infection. Aging has a profound impact on CD4(+) T cell function and humoral immunity, yet the impact of aging on antigen specific TFH responses remains unclear. Influenza specific TFH cells are generated in similar numbers in young and aged… (More)
Although the influenza virus only infects the respiratory system, myalgias are commonly experienced during infection. In addition to a greater risk of hospitalization and death, older adults are more likely to develop disability following influenza infection; however, this relationship is understudied. We hypothesized that upon challenge with influenza,… (More)
A case of giant sacral meningioma with presacral and lumbar extension is presented. The difficulties in diagnosis and management are emphasized including the staged multidisciplinary surgical approaches and preoperative tumor embolization.