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Recent array-based studies have detected a wealth of copy number variations (CNVs) in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Since CNVs also occur in healthy individuals, their contributions to the patient's phenotype remain largely unclear. In a cohort of children with symptoms of ASD, diagnosis of the index patient using ADOS-G and ADI-R was(More)
A 12-year-old boy currently is followed by multiple sub-specialists for problems caused by the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (Figure). He was born via spontaneous vaginal delivery, weighing 3033 g, to a 31-year-old G3P3 mother after a full-term pregnancy complicated only by mild polyhydramnios. Family history was non-contributory. Apgar(More)
Rare copy-number variation (CNV) is an important source of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We analyzed 2,446 ASD-affected families and confirmed an excess of genic deletions and duplications in affected versus control groups (1.41-fold, p = 1.0 × 10(-5)) and an increase in affected subjects carrying exonic pathogenic CNVs overlapping known loci(More)
The identification of the candidate genes for autism through linkage and association studies has proven to be a difficult enterprise. An alternative approach is the analysis of cytogenetic abnormalities associated with autism. We present a review of all studies to date that relate patients with cytogenetic abnormalities to the autism phenotype. A literature(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine psychopathology and influence of intelligence level on psychiatric symptoms in children with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). METHOD Sixty patients, ages 9 through 18 years, were evaluated. Assessments followed standard protocols, including structured and semistructured interviews of parents, videotaped psychiatric interview,(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable disorder of complex and heterogeneous aetiology. It is primarily characterized by altered cognitive ability including impaired language and communication skills and fundamental deficits in social reciprocity. Despite some notable successes in neuropsychiatric genetics, overall, the high heritability of(More)
The association between the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and psychiatric disorders, particularly psychosis, suggests a causal relationship between 22q11DS genes and abnormal brain function. The genes catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase both reside within the commonly deleted region of 22q11.2. COMT activity and proline(More)
The recent identification of copy-number variation in the human genome has opened up new avenues for the discovery of positional candidate genes underlying complex genetic disorders, especially in the field of psychiatric disease. One major challenge that remains is pinpointing the susceptibility genes in the multitude of disease-associated loci. This(More)
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder associated with palatal abnormalities, cardiac defects, a characteristic facial appearance, learning difficulties, and delays in speech and language development. Various behavioral disorders and psychiatric illnesses have also been reported. There is much debate as to whether the behavioral(More)
OBJECTIVE People with velo-cardio-facial syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have behavioral, cognitive and psychiatric problems. Approximately 30% of affected individuals develop schizophrenia-like psychosis. Glutamate dysfunction is thought to play a crucial role in schizophrenia. However, it is unknown if and how the glutamate system is altered(More)