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Current measures of the performance of computer-controlled infusion pumps (CCIPs) are poorly defined, of little use to the clinician using the CCIP, and pharmacostatistically incorrect. We propose four measures be used to quantitate the performance of CCIPs: median absolute performance error (MDAPE), median performance error (MDPE), divergence, and wobble.(More)
To examine the relationship between the electroencephalograph (EEG) and plasma opioid concentration, one would like to collapse the high-dimensional EEG signal into a univariate quantity. Such a simplification of the EEG is desirable because a univariate quantity can be modeled using standard nonlinear regression techniques, and because most of the(More)
BACKGROUND Muscle rigidity frequently accompanies induction of anesthesia with opioids. The authors sought to determine whether unconsciousness and amnesia occur when humans develop rigidity and apnea after intravenous fentanyl (without other concomitant anesthetics). METHODS The incidence and duration of rigidity and level of consciousness were evaluated(More)
Fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil have important pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences. Selecting one of these opioid analgesics as an adjunct to general anesthesia requires appreciation of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these drugs and the onset of and recovery from drug effect. Using a(More)
Fentanyl was administered intravenously and transdermally to eight surgical patients to determine the systemic bioavailability and rate of absorption of the transdermally administered drug. Serum fentanyl concentrations reached a plateau approximately 14 h after placement of the transdermal fentanyl delivery system. This plateau was maintained until removal(More)
Fentanyl was administered to 21 patients using a computer-controlled infusion pump (CCIP) based on a pharmacokinetic model. Eleven of the patients were dosed according to the pharmacokinetics described by McClain and Hug, and ten of the patients were dosed according to the pharmacokinetics described by Scott and Stanski. The authors measured the difference(More)
Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) is a novel, noninvasive dosage form of fentanyl used to provide children and adults with sedation, anxiolysis, and analgesia. In order to determine the bioavailability and absorption of fentanyl from OTFC, 12 volunteers were given intravenous fentanyl citrate or OTFC 15 micrograms/kg on each of two occasions. On a(More)
Maitre et al. recently evaluated the accuracy of a set of previously determined population pharmacokinetic parameters for the opioid alfentanil using data from an earlier study in which the drug had been administered using a computer-controlled infusion pump (CCIP). The present study evaluated the accuracy of these same parameters in a CCIP prospectively in(More)
PURPOSE This study investigates the rate and extent of absorption following intramuscular injection of midazolam and diazepam. METHODS Four healthy male volunteers were recruited in this randomized three-way cross-over study. On one occasion each subject received simultaneous im injections of 5 mg midazolam and 10 mg diazepam in separate deltoid muscles.(More)
This study examined the relationship among pseudo-steady-state (constant) serum thiopental concentrations, clinical anesthetic depth as assessed by several perioperative stimuli, and the electroencephalogram (EEG). Twenty-six ASA physical status 1 or 2 patients participated in the study. Two constant serum thiopental concentrations were maintained in each(More)