Jacob S Selhub

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BACKGROUND In cross-sectional studies, elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been associated with poor cognition and dementia. Studies of newly diagnosed dementia are required in order to establish whether the elevated homocysteine levels precede the onset of dementia or result from dementia-related nutritional and vitamin deficiencies. METHODS A total(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the distribution of plasma homocysteine concentrations in an elderly population and to analyze the relationship between homocysteine level and intake of vitamins and serum levels of vitamins that serve as coenzymes in homocysteine metabolism. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of homocysteine levels and vitamin blood levels and intake(More)
Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid whose metabolism stands at the intersection of two pathways: remethylation to methionine, which requires folate and vitamin B12 (or betaine in an alternative reaction); and transsulfuration to cystathionine, which requires pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. The two pathways are coordinated by S-adenosylmethionine, which acts as an(More)
Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is caused by nutritional and/or genetic disruptions in homocysteine metabolism. The most common genetic cause of hyperhomocysteinemia is the 677C-->T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. This variant, with mild enzymatic deficiency, is associated with an increased(More)
BACKGROUND Established determinants of fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration include folate and vitamin B-12 status, serum creatinine concentration, and renal function. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to examine the relation between known and suspected determinants of fasting plasma tHcy in a population-based cohort. DESIGN We examined the(More)
BACKGROUND Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) synthesizes 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the major carbon donor in remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. A common MTHFR mutation, an alanine-to-valine substitution, renders the enzyme thermolabile and may cause elevated plasma levels of the amino acid homocysteine. METHODS AND RESULTS To assess(More)
Folate derivatives are important in experimental colorectal carcinogenesis; low folate intake, particularly with substantial alcohol intake, is associated with increased risk. The enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, required for purine and thymidine syntheses, to(More)
Recent studies have found a connection between hyperhomocysteinemia and hip fracture. If this association is causal, it could be mediated through detrimental effects of low B-vitamin status on bone mineral density (BMD). Studies have linked homocysteine (Hcy) and the established Hcy determinants folate and vitamin B12, to BMD, but results have been(More)
DNA methylation, an essential epigenetic feature of DNA that modulates gene expression and genomic integrity, is catalyzed by methyltransferases that use the universal methyl donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), the methyl donor for synthesis of(More)
A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), 677C-->T, is associated with reduced enzyme activity, a thermolabile enzyme and mild hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease. Recently, a second common mutation (1298A-->C; glutamate to alanine) was reported, but this mutation was suggested to increase homocysteine only in(More)