Jacob P . Bruin

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BACKGROUND Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine prevents recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) in infants immunised at 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months of age. We aimed to find out whether this vaccine also prevents AOM in older children who have had previous episodes of AOM. METHODS In this double-blind, randomised study, we enrolled 383 patients aged 1-7 years who had(More)
The nasopharynx is the ecological niche for many commensal bacteria and for potential respiratory or invasive pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Disturbance of a balanced nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiome might be involved in the onset of symptomatic infections with these pathogens, which occurs(More)
BACKGROUND Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) shifts nasopharyngeal colonisation with vaccine serotype pneumococci towards nonvaccine serotypes. Because of the reported negative association of vaccine serotype pneumococci and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx, we explored the effect of PCV7 on nasopharyngeal colonisation with S. aureus(More)
BACKGROUND High rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria and respiratory viruses can be detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children. Investigating presence of and associations between these pathogens in healthy individuals is still a rather unexplored field of research, but may have implications for interpreting findings during disease. (More)
CONTEXT The rapid increase in multiresistant serotype 19A as a cause of invasive and respiratory pneumococcal disease has been associated in time with the widespread implementation of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV-7) in several countries. Because spontaneous fluctuations in time and antibiotic selective pressure may have induced this(More)
This study investigated the hypothesis that the genotype distribution of Legionella isolates from sporadic patients with Legionnaires' disease differs from that of Legionella strains in the environment. An amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) assay was used to genotype patient-derived and environmental Legionella isolates. The three Legionella(More)
Legionella longbeachae was cultured from the sputum of a patient suffering from Legionnaires' disease. Source identification efforts included analysis of samples of potting soil from the patient's garden, and a genotypically indistinguishable strain of L. longbeachae was cultured from this material. Following examination of a national collection of(More)
Sir, Legionella species are responsible for 1%– 5% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (SG1) accounts for .90% of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) in North America and Europe and is the cause of significant mortality. The mortality rate among patients with L. pneumophila infections continues to be high, up to 26%. The(More)
BACKGROUND To stop a possible outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) at an early stage an outbreak detection programme was installed in The Netherlands. METHODS The programme consisted of sampling and controlling of potential sources to which LD patients had been exposed during their incubation period. Potential sources were considered to be true sources(More)
Incidence of pneumococcal disease is disproportionally high in infants and elderly. Nasopharyngeal colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a prerequisite for disease but unlike in children, carriage in elderly is rarely detected. Here, we tested for S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and saliva samples collected from community-dwelling elderly(More)