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N-terminal acetylation is ubiquitous among eukaryotic proteins and controls a myriad of biological processes. Of the N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) that facilitate this cotranslational modification, the heterodimeric NatA complex has the most diversity for substrate selection and modifies the majority of all N-terminally acetylated proteins. Here, we(More)
The amino acid acridon-2-ylalanine (Acd) can be a valuable probe of protein conformational change because it is a long lifetime, visible wavelength fluorophore that is small enough to be incorporated during ribosomal biosynthesis. Incorporation of Acd into proteins expressed in Escherichia coli requires efficient chemical synthesis to produce large(More)
The vast amount of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mediated by AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs). As a result, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission is implicated in nearly all aspects of brain development, function, and plasticity. Despite the central role of AMPARs in neurobiology, the fine-tuning of(More)
Previously we have shown that thioamides can be incorporated into proteins as minimally perturbing fluorescence-quenching probes to study protein dynamics, folding, and aggregation. Here, we show that the spontaneity of photoinduced electron transfer between a thioamide and an excited fluorophore is governed by the redox potentials of each moiety according(More)
Thioamide modifications of the peptide backbone are used to perturb secondary structure, to inhibit proteolysis, as photoswitches, and as spectroscopic labels. Thus far, their incorporation has been confined to single peptides synthesized on solid phase. We have generated thioamides in C-terminal thioesters or N-terminal Cys fragments and examined their(More)
Thioamides quench tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence in a distance-dependent manner and thus can be used to monitor the binding of thioamide-containing peptides to proteins. Since thioamide analogs of the natural amino acids can be synthetically incorporated into peptides, they can function as minimally-perturbing probes of protein/peptide interactions.
STUDY DESIGN A retrospective medical record review of cases with congenital vertebral malformations (CVMs) and controls with normal spine morphology. OBJECTIVE To determine the relative contribution of maternal environmental factors (MEFs) during pregnancy to CVM development. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA CVMs represent defects in formation and(More)
Metal ions perform critical and diverse functions in nervous system physiology and pathology. The field of metalloneurochemistry aims to understand the mechanistic bases for these varied roles at the molecular level. Here, we review several areas of research that illustrate progress toward achieving this ambitious goal and identify key challenges for the(More)