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BACKGROUND Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed(More)
BACKGROUND In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate population health benefits and cost-effectiveness of interventions for reducing salt in the diet. DESIGN Proportional multistate life-table modelling of cardiovascular disease and health sector cost outcomes over the lifetime of the Australian population in 2003. INTERVENTIONS The current Australian programme of incentives to the(More)
BACKGROUND Prolonged television (TV) viewing time is unfavourably associated with mortality outcomes, particularly for cardiovascular disease, but the impact on life expectancy has not been quantified. The authors estimate the extent to which TV viewing time reduces life expectancy in Australia, 2008. METHODS The authors constructed a life table model(More)
INTRODUCTION Cost-effectiveness analyses are important tools in efforts to prioritise interventions for obesity prevention. Modelling facilitates evaluation of multiple scenarios with varying assumptions. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of conservative scenarios for two commonly proposed policy-based interventions: front-of-pack 'traffic-light'(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence suggesting that food advertising causes childhood obesity. The strength of this effect is unclear. To inform decisions on whether to restrict advertising opportunities, we estimate how much of the childhood obesity prevalence is attributable to food advertising on television (TV). METHODS We constructed a mathematical(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the contribution of television (TV) food advertising to the prevalence of obesity among 6-11-year-old children in Australia, Great Britain (England and Scotland only), Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden and the United States. DESIGN Data from contemporary representative studies on the prevalence of childhood obesity and on TV food(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from(More)
BACKGROUND The potential impact fraction is a measure of effect that calculates the proportional change in disease risk after a change in the exposure of a related risk factor. Potential impact fractions are increasingly used to calculate attributable fractions when the lowest exposure is non-zero. METHODS Risk-factor exposure can be expressed as a(More)
OBJECTIVE Obesity is a growing problem worldwide, but there are no good methods to assess the future course of the epidemic and the potential influence of interventions. We explore the behavior change needed to stop the obesity epidemic in the U.S. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES We modeled the population distribution of BMI as a log-normal curve of which(More)